Making Better PowerPoint Presentations
We have all experienced the pain of a bad PowerPoint presentation. And even though we promise ourselves never to make the same mistakes, we can still fall prey to common design pitfalls. The good news is that your PowerPoint presentation doesn’t have to be ordinary. By keeping in mind a few guidelines, your classroom presentations can stand above the crowd!
“It is easy to dismiss design – to relegate it to mere ornament, the prettifying of places and objects to disguise their banality. But that is a serious misunderstanding of what design is and why it matters.”
Baddeley and Hitch’s model of working memory.
One framework that can be useful when making design decisions about your PowerPoint slide design is Baddeley and Hitch’s model of working memory.
As illustrated in the diagram above, the Central Executive coordinates the work of three systems by organizing the information we hear, see, and store into working memory.
The PhonologicalLoop deals with any auditory information. Students in a classroom are potentially listening to a variety of things: the instructor, questions from their peers, sound effects or audio from the PowerPoint presentation, and their own “inner voice.”
The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad deals with information we see. This involves such aspects as form, color, size, space between objects, and their movement. For students this would include: the size and color of fonts, the relationship between images and text on the screen, the motion path of text animation and slide transitions, as well as any hand gestures, facial expressions, or classroom demonstrations made by the instructor.
The Episodic Buffer integrates the information across these sensory domains and communicates with long-term memory. All of these elements are being deposited into a holding tank called the “episodic buffer.” This buffer has a limited capacity and can become “overloaded” thereby, setting limits on how much information students can take in at once.
Research about student preferences for PowerPoint
Laura Edelman and Kathleen Harring from Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Pennsylvania have developed an approach to PowerPoint design using Baddeley and Hitch’s model. During the course of their work, they conducted a survey of students at the college asking what they liked and didn’t like about their professor’s PowerPoint presentations. They discovered the following:
Characteristics students don’t like about professors’ PowerPoint slides
- Too many words on a slide
- Clip art
- Movement (slide transitions or word animations)
- Templates with too many colors
Characteristics students like like about professors’ PowerPoint slides
- Graphs increase understanding of content
- Bulleted lists help them organize ideas
- PowerPoint can help to structure lectures
- Verbal explanations of pictures/graphs help more than written clarifications
According to Edelman and Harring, some conclusions from the research at Muhlenberg are that students learn more when:
- material is presented in short phrases rather than full paragraphs.
- the professor talks about the information on the slide rather than having students read it on their own.
- relevant pictures are used. Irrelevant pictures decrease learning compared to PowerPoint slides with no picture
- they take notes (if the professor is not talking). But if the professor is lecturing, note-taking and listening decreased learning.
- they are given the PowerPoint slides before the class.
Advice from Edelman and Harring on leveraging the working memory with PowerPoint:
- Leverage the working memory by dividing the information between the visual and auditory modality. Doing this reduces the likelihood of one system becoming overloaded. For instance, spoken words with pictures are better than pictures with text, as integrating an image and narration takes less cognitive effort than integrating an image and text.
- Minimize the opportunity for distraction by removing any irrelevant material such as music, sound effects, animations, and background images.
- Use simple cues to direct learners to important points or content. Using text size, bolding, italics, or placing content in a highlighted or shaded text box is all that is required to convey the significance of key ideas in your presentation.
- Don’t put every word you intend to speak on your PowerPoint slide. Instead, keep information displayed in short chunks that are easily read and comprehended.
Resources for making better PowerPoint presentations
- One of the mostly widely accessed websites about PowerPoint design is Garr Reynolds’ blog, Presentation Zen. In his blog entry: “What is Good PowerPoint Design?” Reynolds explains how to keep the slide design simple, yet not simplistic, and includes a few slide examples that he has ‘made-over’ to demonstrate how to improve its readability and effectiveness. He also includes sample slides from his own presentation about PowerPoint slide design.
- Another presentation guru, David Paradi, author of “The Visual Slide Revolution: Transforming Overloaded Text Slides into Persuasive Presentations” maintains a video podcast series called “Think Outside the Slide” where he also demonstrates PowerPoint slide makeovers. Examples on this site are typically from the corporate perspective, but the process by which content decisions are made is still relevant for higher education. Paradi has also developed a five step method, called KWICK, that can be used as a simple guide when designing PowerPoint presentations.
- In the video clip below, Comedian Don McMillan talks about some of the common misuses of PowerPoint in his routine called “Life After Death by PowerPoint.”
Presenting to Win: The Art of Telling Your Story, by Jerry Weissman, Prentice Hall, 2006
Presentation Zen: Simple Ideas on Presentation Design and Delivery, by Garr Reynolds, New Riders Press, 2008
Solving the PowerPoint Predicament: using digital media for effective communication, by Tom Bunzel, Que, 2006
The Cognitive Style of Power Point, by Edward R. Tufte, Graphics Pr, 2003
The Visual Slide Revolution: Transforming Overloaded Text Slides into Persuasive Presentations, by Dave Paradi, Communications Skills Press, 2000
Why Most PowerPoint Presentations Suck: And How You Can Make Them Better, by Rick Altman, Harvest Books, 2007
Presentation on theme: "Football Assignment Criteria A"— Presentation transcript:
1 Football Assignment Criteria A
By: Shahd Fakhroo 8E
2 What is football?Football is any of different games played with a ball (round or oval) in which two teams try to kick or carry or push the ball onto each other’s goal.It’s a game played by two teams of 11 players each on a rectangle, 100-yard-long field with goal lines and goal posts at either end, the object of the game is to try to score a goal to the opposite side by letting the ball touches the net in the goal and trying to pass the opponents players by running or passing or kicking it through the air.Football was called that name because it came from the word foot and that’s because we kick the ball using our foot. However soccer was derived from the word “asSOCiation”.
3 Where did Football originate from?
Football is a very famous and enjoyable sport, which is played nearly all around the world. Football or also called soccer origins can be found from every angle of geography and history. For example the Chinese, Japanese, Persian, Italian, Ancient Greek, Vikings and many more played a ball game before our generation. Around 3000 years ago, the Chinese played football games whereas the ancient Greeks and the Roman used football games to enhance warriors for the battles.The first football association was founded in England in 1863, football really begin to take shape when two football association (association football and rugby football) split off on their different course.
4 Who made up the first organized set of rules for Football
Who made up the first organized set of rules for Football? Why did they do this?As the game started growing more and more popular in the public school systems in 1848, Henry de Winton and John Charles Thring organized a meeting a College in Cambridge. They worked out a set of soccer rules known as the "Cambridge Rules’ in only 8 hours. It’s believed that they played a major role in England's football history, as they are allegedly the base on which the Laws of the Game would later be constructedIn 1863, several football clubs met in London organized rules for the game of soccer and representatives met at the Freemason's Tavern in Great Queen Street, where they set up the first soccer organization in the World, called the Football Association (FA). The laws of the game were published in England. Association football is governed internationally by FIFA, which organizes the World Cup every four years.They organized set of rules in England because they wanted to make it one official set of rules for the whole world so they can play this sport from. They wanted to let all the people play one same sport with the same rules. For example if the referee whistle it means your out.
5 How many countries play Football as their national sport?
Millions of people in more than 140 countries play soccer out of nearly 195 countries of the world, like the USA, England, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and many more. Soccer is known throughout the whole earth, many countries enjoy playing it and a lot of countries win world cups in competitions if they work hard enough.The major competition in football is the World Cup, organized by FIFA. This competition takes place over a four-year period. More than 190 national teams compete in qualifying tournaments for a place in the finals and for winning the gold cup.
6 Why do you think Football has become so popular around the world?
Football is the world most famous sport and these are some reasons for it…1- Football is watched and played more than any other sport globally manly due to the excitement of hoping to see a goal and the importance each goal scored had on the flow of the match. Also every single person in this world loves competing and cheering for their favorite teams and seeing it winning.2- Everyone can afford buying the equipments, rich and poor people can play this game because they don’t need to buy expensive and lots of equipments to play this sport therefore they only need a middle sized ball and a goal made from a net.3- The other reason is that any person can play football. Size, tallness or the age does not matter in this sport as the others, for example you need to be huge and tall to play basketball and strong to play hockey or rugby. Also anyone can have the skills to be very good at it by practicing and learning new techniques.
7 Do you think there are different ways of playing, or styles, of Football in different areas around the world?Yes I do think that there are different ways, or styles of football in different areas around the world. In general football means any game that played with a ball (round or oval) in which two teams try to kick or carry or propel the ball into each other’s goal. Therefore there are lots of different ways and styles of football in different countries and places. The most famous one is association football (soccer), also there is American football, Australian rules football, Canadian football, Gaelic football, rugby league football and rugby union football. They are all played in the same idea but different in styles. For example, soccer is played by kicking the ball into the others team goal whereas the rugby union is played by holding the oval shaped ball in the hand and trying to pass it through the H-shaped goal posts on each goal line.
8 Bibliography Information websites :
Picture websites :