Fronts Essay

[12 pt, Times New Roman, Double-spaced, center, bold]
[Press enter 6 times]







Title 
[Press enter 7 times]










Your name
[Press enter 7 times]

















Grade  Course
Teacher's Name
Day  Month  Year


Paper

Paper must be white, 81/2 “X 11” , and stapled together in the left-hand corner.

All papers should be double-spaced and typed, if possible. The writing on first page should begin about 1/4 of the way down the page. All pages should be numbered except the title page and the first page. Page numbers should be placed in the upper right-hand corner. 


Referencing within your essay

In research papers or any other writing that borrows information from other sources, the borrowed information must be clearly documented. Quotations, summaries, statistics or anything not considered common knowledge is called borrowed information. The easiest way of documenting your sources is to use in-text citations. The reference is given in the text of the paper instead of using footnotes or endnotes. This means that your place your source on parenthesis (brackets) immediately after the borrowed information in your text and before any line punctuation.

The information contained in the citation should be as follows:

( Author’s last name page number)

e.g. (Collins 134)

No comma is required between the two pieces of information.

If you are citing a work without a named author, use either the title of the book or the title of the article in place of the author’s name. Remember that titles of books need to be underlined or in italics and that titles of articles should be placed in “quotation marks”.

If you are citing an Internet site, you may simply put the word Internet in brackets. If you have more than one Internet site in your works cited list, you must put the website URL in brackets.



Works Cited page

Title this page Works Cited. This page should be numbered, as should all other pages in your essay (except the first page which should not be numbered), in the upper right hand corner. Leave two lines in between the title of the page and your first source. Sources should be placed in alphabetical order on this page by last names of the author(s). If a source has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than a, an or the.

Do not indent the first line of each entry, but indent each subsequent line (use the TAB key). Put a space between each entry.


Quotations

Short quotations (three lines or less) are included within the text of the essay. 

e.g.
The Buddhist faith had a very interesting start. “In the beginning Buddha found enlightenment under the bodhi tree, near what is now Nepal” (McDowell 75).

Long quotations (three lines or more) are set apart from the text of the essay, as follows:

Devout Buddhists follow the teachings of the Four Noble truths an Eightfold Path. Each contains the essence that units all Buddists today: Life is full of suffering; that most of that suffering, including the fear of earth, can be traced to “desire”, the man’s habit of seeing everything through the prism of the self and its well-being; that this craving can be transcended, leading to peace and eventually to an exalted state of full enlightenment called Nirvana (McDowell 71).


Outline

The following information should be included in your outline. Remember to keep words and phrasing consistent; for example, if you write your first main topic in sentence form, write everything else in sentence form. 

Topic of essay

I. First main idea
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

II. Second main idea
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

III. Third main idea
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

IV. Conclusion



Example (topic is a person)

Leonardo da Vinci

I. Who
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

II. What / When / Where / How
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

III. Why
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

IV. Conclusion - summary



Example (topic is an event)

September 11, 2001

I. What / When / Where / How
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

II. Who
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

III. Why
1. First supporting fact / detail
2. Second supporting fact / detail
3. Third supporting fact / detail

IV. Conclusion - summary

Air masses and fronts



Photo by: Andy Dean

An air mass is a large body of air that, at any one height, has a relatively steady temperature and moisture content throughout. Air masses typically cover areas ranging from hundreds of thousands to millions of square miles. A front is the boundary at which two air masses of different temperature and moisture content meet. The role of air masses and fronts in the development of weather systems was first recognized by the Norwegian father and son team of Vilhelm and Jacob Bjerknes in the 1920s. These two phenomena are still studied intensively as predictors of future weather patterns.

Source regions

Air masses form when a body of air comes to rest over an area that has an unvarying topography, or consistent surface features. Deserts, plains, and oceans typically cover very wide areas with relatively few topographical variations. In such areas, called source regions, large masses of air can accumulate without being broken apart by mountains, land/water intersections, or other surface features. A stable atmosphere, in which high winds are absent, is also necessary for the formation of an air mass.

Classification. Air masses are classified according to a two-letter system. The first letter, written in lower case, indicates whether the air mass

Cold fronts are usually accompanied by cumulonimbus thunderstorm clouds. (Reproduced by permission of

National Center for Atmospheric Research

.)

forms over land or sea and therefore suggests, the relative amount of moisture in the mass. The two designations are c for continental (land) air mass and m for maritime (water) air mass. A second letter, written in upper case, indicates the approximate latitude (and, therefore, temperature) of the region: A for arctic; P for polar; E for equatorial; T for tropical.

The two letters are then combined to designate both humidity and temperature of an air mass. An air mass that developed in a source region over a large body of tropical water would be labeled mT (water, warm). An air mass that developed in a source region over an arctic land-mass would be labeled cA (land, cold).

Fronts

Air masses create weather as they are moved by winds around the globe. Fronts develop at the boundary where two air masses with different temperatures—and, usually, different humidities—come into contact with each other. The term front was suggested by the Bjerkneses because the collision of two air masses reminded them of a battlefront during a military operation.

Words to Know

Continental: Referring to very large land masses.

Humidity: The amount of moisture in the air.

Maritime: Referring to the oceans.

Topographical: Referring to the surface features of an area.

Cold fronts. A cold front develops when a cold air mass moves into an area occupied by a warm air mass. Because cold air is heavier or more dense than warm air, the cold air mass moves under the warm air mass. Cold fronts are usually accompanied by a decrease in air pressure and the development of large cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds that bring rain showers and thunderstorms. Rainfall and winds are most severe along the boundary between the two air masses. Cold fronts are represented on weather maps by solid lines with solid triangles. The direction in which the triangles point shows the direction in which the cold front is moving.

Warm fronts. A warm front develops when a warm air mass approaches and then slides up and over a cold air mass. As the warm air mass comes into contact with the cold air mass, it is cooled and some of the moisture held within it condenses to form clouds. In most cases, the first clouds to appear are high cirrus clouds. Some time later, lower-level stratus and nimbostratus clouds form, usually bringing widespread rainfall. Warm fronts are designated on weather maps by solid lines with solid half circles. The direction in which the half circles point shows the direction in which the warm front is moving.

Occluded fronts. A more complex type of front is one in which a cold front overtakes a slower-moving warm front. When that happens, the cold air mass behind the cold front eventually catches up and comes into contact with the cold air mass underneath the warm front. The boundary between these two cold air masses is an occluded front. Clouds form along this boundary, usually resulting in steady and moderate rainfall. An occluded front is represented on a weather map by means of a solid line that contains alternating triangles and half circles on the same side of the line.

Stationary fronts. In some instances, the collision of two air masses results in a stand-off. Neither mass is strong enough to displace the other, and essentially no movement occurs. The boundary between the air masses in this case is known as a stationary front and is designated on a weather map by a solid line with triangles and half circles on opposite sides of the line. Stationary fronts are often accompanied by fair, clear weather, although some light precipitation may occur.

Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *