Essay On Maharshi Dhondo Keshav Karve North

1. Mumbai – Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India and the ninth most populous agglomeration in the world, Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named a world city. It is also the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South, West, Mumbai has the highest number of billionaires and millionaires among all cities in India. The seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies, during the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by economic and educational development, during the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon Indias independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State, in 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial, commercial and entertainment capital of India and it is also home to some of Indias premier scientific and nuclear institutes like BARC, NPCL, IREL, TIFR, AERB, AECI, and the Department of Atomic Energy. The city also houses Indias Hindi and Marathi film and television industry, Mumbais business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures. The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja, in 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name Bombaim, in his Lendas da Índia. This name possibly originated as the Old Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning good little bay, in 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu, Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include, Mombayn, Bombay, Bombain, Bombaym, Monbaym, Mombaim, Mombaym, Bambaye, Bombaiim, Bombeye, Boon Bay, and Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial diwan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i-Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai. By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in the Indian statewise official languages of Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati, Kannada and Sindhi, the Government of India officially changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995. According to Slate magazine, they argued that Bombay was a corrupted English version of Mumbai, Slate also said The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region. A resident of Mumbai is called mumbaikar in the Marathi language, the term has been in use for quite some time but it gained popularity after the official name change to Mumbai. Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands, Bombay Island, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli and it is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited

2. Maharashtra – Four Maharashtra is a state in the western region of India and is Indias second-most populous state and third-largest state by area. It is the wealthiest Indian state and it is also the worlds second-most populous sub-national entity. It has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, Mumbai, has a population of approximately 18 million, Nagpur is Maharashtras second capital as well as its winter capital. Maharashtras business opportunities along with its potential to offer a standard of living attract migrants from all over India. Ancient and medieval Maharashtra included the empires of the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Mughals, the major rivers of the state are Godavari, and Krishna. The Narmada and Tapti Rivers flow near the border between Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, Maharashtra is the second most urbanised state in India. The state has several popular Hindu places of pilgrimage including Pandharpur, Dehu and Alandi, other places that attract pilgrims from other parts of India and beyond include Hazur Sahib Gurudwara at Nanded, Sai Baba shrine at Shirdi and Dikshabhumi at Nagpur. Maharashtra is the wealthiest and one of the most developed states in India, as of 2011, the state had a per capita income of ₹1.0035 lakh, more than the national average of ₹0.73 lakh. Its GDP per capita crossed the ₹1.20 lakh threshold for the first time in 2013, however, as of 2014, the GDP per capita reduced to ₹1.03 lakh Agriculture and industries are the largest parts of the states economy. Major industries include chemical products, electrical and non-electrical machinery, textiles, petroleum, Jai Maharashtra The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, and the word Mahratta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri, Marathi and Maratha may have derived from the same root, however, their exact etymology is uncertain. But the Marathas as a people do not seem to be mentioned before the thirteenth or fourteenth century, the most widely accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra ultimately derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika. The word rashtrika is a Sanskritized form of Ratta, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that the term is derived from Maha and ratha / rathi, an alternative theory states that the term derives from the word Maha and Rashtra. However, this theory has not found acceptance among scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of later writers. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE, around 230 BCE Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni, in 90 CE Vedishri, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty, made Junnar, thirty miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom. The state was ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Vakataka, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, and Western Chalukya before finally

3. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety

4. Family planning – Family planning is the practice of controlling the number of children in a family and the intervals between their births, particularly by means of artificial contraception or voluntary sterilization. Because family is included in the name, consideration of a couples desire to bear children. Family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have, including the choice to have no children, if sexually active, family planning may involve the use of contraception and other techniques to control the timing of reproduction. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education, prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections, pre-conception counseling and management, Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym or euphemism for access to and the use of contraception. However, it often involves methods and practices in addition to contraception and it is most usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy. Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well as abortion, raising a child requires significant amounts of resources, time, social, financial, and environmental. Planning can help assure that resources are available, the purpose of family planning is to make sure that any couple, man, or woman who has the desire to have a child has the resources that are needed in order to complete this goal. With these resources a couple, man or women can explore the options of natural birth, surrogacy, artificial insemination, the WHO states about maternal health that, Maternal health refers to the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. While motherhood is often a positive and fulfilling experience, for too many women it is associated with suffering, ill-health, about 99% of maternal deaths occur in less developed countries, > ½ occur in sub-Saharan Africa and almost ⅓ in South Asia. Both early and late motherhood have increased risks, young teenagers face a higher risk of complications and death as a result of pregnancy. Waiting until the mother is at least 18 years old before trying to have children improves maternal and child health. Also, if children are desired after a child is born, it is healthier for the mother. After a miscarriage or abortion, it is healthier to wait at least 6 months, when planning a family, women should be aware that reproductive risks increase with the age of the woman. The risk of prolonged labor is higher, older mothers have a higher risk of a long labor, putting the baby in distress. Family planning benefits the health and well-being of women and families throughout the world, using contraception can help to avoid unwanted pregnancies and space births, protect against STDs, including HIV/AIDS, and provide other health benefits. Modern methods of family planning include birth control, assisted reproductive technology and family planning programs. The use of methods of contraception is an important basis for improving the long-term health of adolescent girls. ”In cases where couples may not want to have children just yet. Federal family planning programs reduced childbearing among poor women by as much as 29 percent, adoption is sometimes used to build a family

5. Chitpavan – Until the 18th century, the Chitpavans were held in low esteem by the Deshastha, the older established Brahmin community of Maharashtra region. The community remains concentrated in Maharashtra but also has populations all over India, there are two common mythological theories of origin among the Chitpavans. The Parashurama myth of origin is identical to the myth that claimed by the Bene Israel of the Kolaba district, according to Bene Israeli myth, the Chitpavan and Bene Israel are descendants from a group of 14 people shipwrecked off the Konkan coast. One group converted to Hinduism as Chitpavan Brahmins, the other remained Jewish or Bene Israel, originally the myth pertained to Chitpavans only, but a certain section of society was obsessed with their lineage, hence furthered the name of Bene israel. The Konkan region has witnessed the immigration of groups, such as the Bene Israeli, Parsis. Each of these settled in parts of the region and there was little mingling between them. While the other groups generally took up trade as their primary occupation, very little is known of the Chitpavans before 1707 A. D. Sometime around this time, an individual of the Chitpavan community and he was brought there on the basis of his reputation of being an efficient administrator. He quickly gained the attention of Chhatrapati Shahu, balajis work so pleased the Chhatrapati that he was appointed the Peshwa or Prime Minister in 1713. Balaji was blessed by his spiritual preceptor Narayan Dikshit Patankar and he ran a well-organized administration, and, by the time of his death in 1720, he had laid the groundwork for the expansion of the Maratha Empire. Since this time until the fall of the Maratha Empire, the seat of the Peshwa would be held by the members of the Bhat family, the Chitpavan kin were rewarded with tax relief and grants of land. Historians cite nepotism and corruption as causes of the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818, richard Maxwell Eaton states that this rise of the Chitpavans is a classic example of social rank rising with political fortune. After the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818, the Chitpavans lost their dominance to the British. The British would not subsidize the Chitpavans on the scale that their caste-fellow. Pay and power was now significantly reduced, poorer Chitpavan students adapted and started learning English because of better opportunities in the British administration. Some of the prominent figures in the Hindu reform movements of the 19th and 20th centuries came from the Chitpavan Brahmin community and these included Dhondo Keshav Karve, Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Vinoba Bhave, and Gopal Krishna Gokhale. These reforms preached against the Hindu caste system establishment, yet, some of the strongest resistance to change also came from the very same community. The vanguard and the old guard clashed many times, Ranade and other reformers were forced to offer penance for breaking purity rules

6. Bharat Ratna – The Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award of the Republic of India. Instituted in 1954, the award is conferred in recognition of exceptional service/performance of the highest order, without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex. The recommendations for the Bharat Ratna are made by the Prime Minister to the President, recipients receive a Sanad signed by the President and a peepal-leaf–shaped medallion, there is no monetary grant associated with the award. Bharat Ratna recipients rank seventh in the Indian order of precedence, the first recipients of the Bharat Ratna were politician C. Rajagopalachari, philosopher Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and scientist C. V. Raman, since then, the award has been bestowed on 45 individuals, including 12 who were awarded posthumously. The original statutes did not provide for posthumous awards but were amended in January 1955 to permit them, the former Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri became the first individual to be honoured posthumously. In 2014, cricketer Sachin Tendulkar, then aged 40, became the youngest recipient, on 24 December 2014, the Indian government announced the award to independence activist Madan Mohan Malaviya and former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Following a 1997 Supreme Court decision, the press communiqué announcing Boses award was cancelled, it is the time when the award was announced. Several bestowals of the award have met with criticism, the posthumous award for M. G. On 15 January 1955, the Padma Vibhushan was reclassified into three different awards, the Padma Vibhushan, the highest of the three, followed by the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Shri, there is no formal provision that recipients of the Bharat Ratna should be Indian citizens. Sachin Tendulkar, at the age of 40, became the youngest person, in a special ceremony on 18 April 1958, Dhondo Keshav Karve was awarded on his 100th birthday. As of 2015, the award has been conferred upon 45 people with 12 posthumous declarations, the award was briefly suspended twice in its history. The first suspension occurred after Morarji Desai was sworn in as the fourth Prime Minister in 1977 and his government withdrew all personal civil honours on 13 July 1977. The suspension was rescinded on 25 January 1980, after Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister, the awards were reintroduced by the Supreme Court in December 1995, following the conclusion of the litigation. The Bharat Ratna is conferred in recognition of exceptional service/performance of the highest order, without distinction of race, occupation, position, the award was originally confined to the arts, literature, science, and public services, as per the 1954 regulations. In December 2011, the rules were changed to any field of human endeavour. Although there is no nomination process, recommendations for the award can only be made by the Prime Minister to the President with a maximum number of three nominees being awarded per year. However, in 1999, four individuals were awarded the honour, the recipient receives a Sanad signed by the President and a medallion without any monetary grant

7. Dhondo Keshav Karve – Dr. Dhondo Keshav Karve, popularly known as Maharishi Karve, was a social reformer in India in the field of womens welfare. In honour of Karve, Queens Road in Mumbai was renamed to Maharshi Karve Road, Karve continued the pioneering work in promoting widows education. The Government of India awarded him its highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna, in 1958, the appellation Maharshi, which the Indian public often assigned to Karve, means ”a great sage”. During 1891–1914, Karve taught mathematics at Fergusson College in Pune, the writings of Herbert Spencer also highly influenced him. Karves 20-year-old widowed sister-in-law, Parvatibai Athavale, was the first to join his school, after finishing her education, he appointed her as the first woman superintendent of the Hindu Widows Home Association. After reading information about Japan Womens University in Tokyo, Japan, Karve felt inspired to establish in 1916 in Pune the first university for women in India, during 1917–1918, Karve established the Training College for Primary School Teachers, and another school for girls, Kanyā Shālā. In March 1929, Karve left for a tour of England and he attended the Primary Teachers Conference at Malvern, and spoke on Education of Women in India at a meeting of the East India Association at Caxton Hall, London. From 25 July to 4 August 1929, he attended a conference in Geneva. From 8 to 21 August, he attended in Elsinor the international meeting of educators under the auspices of the New Education Fellowship, during a subsequent tour of America, Karve lectured at various forums on womens education and social reforms in India. He also visited the Womens University in Tokyo and he returned to India in April 1930. In December 1930, Karve left for a tour of Africa to spread information about his work for women in India. He visited Mombasa, Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika, Zanzibar, Portuguese East Africa, in 1931, the SNDT university established its first college in Mumbai, and moved its headquarters to Mumbai five years later. In 1936, Karve started the Maharashtra Village Primary Education Society with the goal of opening primary schools in villages which had no schools run by the local boards. He also encouraged maintenance of reading habits of adults in villages, in 1944, he founded the Samatā Sangh. In 1949, the Government of India recognized SNDT University as a statutory university, besides dedicating his life to the emancipation of women in India, Karve stood for the abolition of the caste system and the curse of untouchability in Hindu society. Karve had four sons, Raghunath, Shankar, Dinakar, all of them rose to eminence in their own fields of work. Raghunath Karve was a professor of mathematics and a pioneer in sex education, dinkar was a professor of chemistry and later Principal of Fergusson college and an eminent educationist. His wife, Irawati Karve, was an anthropologist, an eminent author, bhaskar and his wife worked in Hingane Stree Shikshan Samstha in various leading capacities

8. Matriculation – Matriculation is the formal process of entering a university, or of becoming eligible to enter by fulfilling certain academic requirements such as a matriculation examination. The matriculation exam was the prerequisite for entry into universities, Matriculation has generally been replaced with a Higher School Certificate or a completion certificate such as the Victorian Certificate of Education. In Bangladesh, the shortened term Matric refers to the Secondary School Examination taken at year 10, in Brazilian Portuguese, the word matrícula refers to the act of enrolling in an educational course, whether it be elementary, high school, college or post-graduate education. In Canada, the term is used by some universities to refer to orientation events, however some universities, including University of Kings College. The ceremony at Kings is quite similar to the ceremonies held in universities such as Oxford or Cambridge. In Ontario during the era with grade 13, satisfactory completion of grade 12 was considered junior matriculation, satisfactory completion of grade 13 was senior matriculation. In Nova Scotia, at the present time, Junior matriculation is grade 11, at Charles University in Prague, the oldest and most prestigious university in the Czech Republic, matriculation is held at the Great Hall. The ceremony is attended by students commencing their studies and it is intended as a demonstration of the adoption of students duties and obtaining of students rights. The ceremony itself involves students taking the Matriculation Oath of the University and symbolically touching the Faculty mace, other Czech universities hold ceremonies similar to the one just described. In Denmark, the University of Copenhagen holds a ceremony each year. The ceremony is held in the Hall of Ceremony in the building of the University. The ceremony begins with a procession with the rector and the deans in academic dress, the ceremony continues with the rector listing the different faculties, after which the different student, shouts when their respective faculty is mentioned. In Finland, Matriculation is the examination taken at the end of Secondary education to qualify for entry into University, the test also constitutes the high schools final exam, in other words it is a high school graduation exam. Since 1919, the test has been arranged by a national body, before that, the administration of the test was the responsibility of the University of Helsinki. The German term Immatrikulation describes the process of enrolling at university as a student. This can happen for winter semester and, depending on the degree program and it does not involve a ceremony. A prerequisite for matriculation is generally the Abitur, which is the matriculation examination in Germany, for regular universities. Both Abitur and Fachhochschulreife are school leaving certificates which students receive after passing their examinations at some types of German secondary schools

9. Fergusson College – Fergusson College is a degree college in western India, situated in the city of Pune. It was founded in 1885 by the Deccan Education Society and was the first privately governed college in India, Professor Vaman Shivram Apte was the first principal of the college. Social reformer, journalist, thinker and educationist Gopal Ganesh Agarkar served as the principal of the college from August 1892 till his death in June 1895. The college is named after Scottish born Sir James Fergusson, the Governor of Bombay, since 1948, the college has been under the jurisdiction of the University of Pune. The college has two sections, The Junior Wing of the college is for graduating from school. Courses are offered in Arts and Science streams, at the end of students may appear for the Higher-Secondary State Certificate examination. The college also offers doctoral and vocational programs, Fergusson College is known for its close association with Indian politics. Its founders were amongst the pioneers of the Indian National Congress, as well as Hindu Nationalism, the college has produced, amongst several ministers and legislators, two Indian Prime Ministers. Fergusson college was among the 19 colleges to get a tag by the central government. The college will receive the financial help grom UGC for the conservation of campus, the 65-acre campus of the college is located in the heart of the city. It provides athletic and cultural facilities, as well as facilities for more than six hundred students. After the Revolt of 1857, Indian luminaries of that saw a pressing need to modernise the education system to fight against British imperialism by democratic means. The result was The New English School, boosted by its success, the Deccan Education Society was formed in 1884 and a year later the Fergusson College was founded. An area of 37 acres of land were donated for one rupee on a 99-year lease by Shirole, the college was inaugurated by William Wordsworth, the grandson of the famous poet and principal of Elphinstone College in Bombay. Other leaders such as R G Bhandarkar and M G Ranade played a part in the construction of the college, the college was named after the then Governor of Bombay, Sir James Fergusson. The British colonial Government in Bombay allowed the college to remain autonomous, in 1935, the college completed fifty years of existence. Sir CV Raman, Indias only Science Nobel laureate at that time, was the president of the Golden Jubilee Celebrations. Mahatma Gandhi, in a message to then Principal Dr. Mahajani wrote, Post-1947, Fergusson College has produced leaders in the fields of politics, academia, literature, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Indias first president, was the chief guest of the platinum jubilee function

10. Bachelor of Arts – A Bachelor of Arts is a bachelors degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, the sciences, or both. Bachelor of Arts degree programs take three to four years depending on the country, academic institution, and specific specializations, majors or minors. The word baccalaureus or baccalarium should not be confused with baccalaureatus, degree diplomas generally are printed on high-quality paper or parchment, individual institutions set the preferred abbreviation for their degrees. In Pakistan, the Bachelor of Arts degree can also be attained within two years as an external degree, in colleges and universities in Australia, New Zealand, Nepal and South Africa, the BA degree can be taken over three years of full-time study. Unlike in other countries, students do not receive a grade for their Bachelor of Arts degree with varying levels of honours. Qualified students may be admitted, after they have achieved their Bachelors program with an overall grade point average. Thus, to achieve a Bachelor Honours degree, a postgraduate year. A student who holds a Honours degree is eligible for entry to either a Doctorate or a very high research Master´s degree program. Education in Canada is controlled by the Provinces and can be different depending on the province in Canada. Canadian universities typically offer a 3-year Bachelor of Arts degrees, in many universities and colleges, Bachelor of Arts degrees are differentiated either as Bachelors of Arts or as honours Bachelor of Arts degree. The honours degrees are designated with the abbreviation in brackets of. It should not be confused with the consecutive Bachelor of Arts degree with Honours, Latin Baccalaureatus in Artibus Cum Honore, BA hon. de jure without brackets and with a dot. It is a degree, which is considered to be the equivalent of a corresponding maîtrise degree under the French influenced system. Going back in history, a three-year Bachelor of Arts degree was called a pass degree or general degree. Students may be required to undertake a long high-quality research empirical thesis combined with a selection of courses from the relevant field of studies. The consecutive B. cum Honore degree is essential if students ultimate goal is to study towards a two- or three-year very high research masters´ degree qualification. A student holding a Baccalaureatus Cum Honore degree also may choose to complete a Doctor of Philosophy program without the requirement to first complete a masters degree, over the years, in some universities certain Baccalaureatus cum Honore programs have been changed to corresponding master´s degrees. In general, in all four countries, the B. A. degree is the standard required for entry into a masters programme, in science, a BA hons degree is generally a prerequisite for entrance to a Ph. D program or a very-high-research-activity master´s programme

11. Wilson College, Mumbai – The Wilson College, set up in 1832 in Mumbai, is one of India’s oldest colleges, its foundation precedes that of the University of Mumbai, to which it is affiliated, by 25 years. It was awarded an A rating by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council in 2005, located opposite Mumbai’s Girgaum Chowpatty, the college building was constructed in 1889 and designed by John Adams in the domestic Victorian Gothic style. It is listed as a Grade III heritage structure in the city, the Wilson College was founded by the Indian missionary Rev. John Wilson, in 1832. Beginning as Ambroli English School in Girgaum, Mumbai, it saw several changes of sites and names. The collegiate section, from which Wilson College evolved, came about in 1836, soon after their arrival in Mumbai in February 1829, Wilson and his wife Margaret Wilson began studying the local Marathi language. Margaret started a school for girls in 1829 at Ambroli House in Girgaum at Mumbai, with Marathi being the medium of instruction. An English boarding school was opened in 1832, which became the St. Columba School. The Ambroli English School is the forerunner of the present college. In 1952, the management of the college came under an autonomous Board of Governors in India, since 1963, the college functions under the management of John Wilson Education Society. Wilson College is a Christian minority institution and is related to CNI. It aims at education of the Christian community and extends its facilities and services to other communities too, the students of Wilson College are from nearly every ethnic, religious and social group, of the country as well as of the world. The motto of the college is Fides, Spes, Caritas — Faith, Hope (that the college can achieve the highest level of moral, spiritual and intellectual excellence, and Love. After the death of Dr. Wilson in 1875, Dr. Dugald Mackichan served as a successor, nine years later, Mackichan became principal and held the position until 1920, becoming one of the most distinguished principals of the college. The Postal Department, Government of India honored its founder and the institution by issuing a Special Day Postal Cover in 2004, in 2007 to commemorate the completion of its 175 years, a stamp and first day cover of Wilson College was issued. The names of the editors do not appear until 1933, the Wilsonian was published twice a year from 1909 until 1944, when it was decided to publish it only once a year. The Wilsonian has been an annual publication ever since and these classrooms are protected by deep verandahs, which overlook the Girgaum Chowpatty beach and are protected by the Mangalore tiled roof. The arched veranda with its segmental sandstone arches on the floor forms one of the common features of the building. The deep over-hanging verandahs on the west façade facing the sea form a buffer between the classrooms and the exteriors and they bear the brunt of the heavy rains and the sunlight

12. Population control – Population control is the practice of artificially altering the size of any population. Population control can be influenced by a variety of factors, humans can greatly influence the size of animal populations they directly interact with. It is for relatively common to spay or neuter dogs. Spaying - removing the ovaries and uterus of a female animal - medical term = ovariohysterectomy, neutering - removing the testes of a male animal - medical term = orchiectomy. Various humans activities all impact various animal populations, population control may involve culling, translocation, or manipulation of the reproductive capability. The growth of a population may be limited by factors such as food supply or predation. The main biotic factors that affect population growth include, Food- both the quantity and the quality of food are important. Snails, for example, cannot reproduce successfully in an environment low in calcium, predators- as a prey population becomes larger, it becomes easier for predators to find prey. If the number of predators suddenly falls, the species might increase in number extremely quickly. Competitors- other organisms may require the resources from the environment. Competition for territory and for mates can drastically reduce the growth of individual organisms, parasites- These may cause disease, and slow down the growth and reproductive rate of organisms within a population. Important Abiotic factors affecting population growth include, Temperature- Higher temperatures speed up enzyme-catalyzed reactions, oxygen availability- affects the rate of energy production by respiration. Light may also control breeding cycles in animals and plants, toxins and pollutants- tissue growth can be reduced by the presence of, for example, sulphur dioxide, and reproductive success may be affected by pollutants such as estrogen like substances. Animal euthanasia is used as a final resort to controlling animal populations. Neutering is another option available to control animal populations, the annual Spay Day USA event was established by the Doris Day Animal League to promote the neutering of pets, especially those in animal shelters, so that the population remains controllable. Several efforts have made to control the population of ticks

13. Christian – A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Christian derives from the Koine Greek word Christós, a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach, while there are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus has a unique significance. The term Christian is also used as an adjective to describe anything associated with Christianity, or in a sense all that is noble, and good. According to a 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there were 2.2 billion Christians around the world in 2010, by 2050, the Christian population is expected to exceed 3 billion. According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey Christianity will remain the worlds largest religion in 2050, about half of all Christians worldwide are Catholic, while more than a third are Protestant. Orthodox communions comprise 12% of the worlds Christians, other Christian groups make up the remainder. Christians make up the majority of the population in 158 countries and territories,280 million Christian live as a minority. In the Greek Septuagint, christos was used to translate the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, in other European languages, equivalent words to Christian are likewise derived from the Greek, such as Chrétien in French and Cristiano in Spanish. The second mention of the term follows in Acts 26,28, where Herod Agrippa II replied to Paul the Apostle, Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian. The third and final New Testament reference to the term is in 1 Peter 4,16, which believers, Yet if as a Christian, let him not be ashamed. The city of Antioch, where someone gave them the name Christians, had a reputation for coming up with such nicknames, in the Annals he relates that by vulgar appellation commonly called Christians and identifies Christians as Neros scapegoats for the Great Fire of Rome. Another term for Christians which appears in the New Testament is Nazarenes which is used by the Jewish lawyer Tertullus in Acts 24, the Hebrew equivalent of Nazarenes, Notzrim, occurs in the Babylonian Talmud, and is still the modern Israeli Hebrew term for Christian. A wide range of beliefs and practices is found across the world among those who call themselves Christian, denominations and sects disagree on a common definition of Christianity. Most Baptists and fundamentalists, for example, would not acknowledge Mormonism or Christian Science as Christian, in fact, the nearly 77 percent of Americans who self-identify as Christian are a diverse pluribus of Christianities that are far from any collective unity. The identification of Jesus as the Messiah is not accepted by Judaism, the term for a Christian in Hebrew is נוּצְרי, a Talmudic term originally derived from the fact that Jesus came from the Galilean village of Nazareth, today in northern Israel. Adherents of Messianic Judaism are referred to in modern Hebrew as יְהוּדִים מָשִׁיחַיים, the term Nasara rose to prominence in July 2014, after the Fall of Mosul to the terrorist organization Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The nun or ن— the first letter of Nasara—was spray-painted on the property of Christians ejected from the city, where there is a distinction, Nasrani refers to people from a Christian culture and Masihi is used by Christians themselves for those with a religious faith in Jesus. In some countries Nasrani tends to be used generically for non-Muslim Western foreigners, another Arabic word sometimes used for Christians, particularly in a political context, is Ṣalībī from ṣalīb which refers to Crusaders and has negative connotations

14. Resignation – A resignation is the formal act of giving up or quitting ones office or position. A resignation can occur when a holding a position gained by election or appointment steps down. When an employee chooses to leave a position, it is considered a resignation, as opposed to involuntary termination, abdication is the equivalent of resignation of a reigning monarch or pope, or other holder of a non-political, hereditary or similar position. A resignation is a decision to exit a position, though outside pressure exists in many cases. Arroyos predecessor, Joseph Estrada, was forced out of office during the EDSA Revolution of 2001 as he faced the first impeachment trial held in the countrys history. Having resigned, he again and was re-elected. He continued to serve as minister until he was defeated in 1997 elections. Although government officials may tender their resignations, they are not always accepted, in academia, a university president or the editor of a scientific journal may also resign, particularly in cases where an idea which runs counter to the mainstream is being promoted. In a club, society, or other voluntary association, a member may resign from a position in that organization or even from the organization itself. In Roberts Rules of Order, this is called a request to be excused from a duty, a resignation may also be withdrawn. Lists of resignations Resignation from the United States Senate Request to be excused from a duty

15. Marathi language – Marathi is an Indian language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra. It is the language and co-official language in the Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India, respectively. There were 73 million speakers in 2001, Marathi ranks 19th in the list of most spoken languages in the world, Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India, after Hindi, Bengali and Telugu in that order. Marathi has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-Aryan languages, the major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect. Malvani Konkani has been influenced by Marathi varieties. Marathi has several features that set it aside from most other Indian languages, Marathi distinguishes inclusive and exclusive forms of we and possesses a three-way gender system that features the neuter in addition to the masculine and the feminine. In its phonology it contrasts apico-alveolar with alveopalatal affricates and, in common with Gujarati, Marathi is primarily spoken in Maharashtra and parts of neighbouring states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, union-territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The cities of Baroda, Surat, and Ahmedabad, Belgaum, Karwar, Nipani, Indore, Gwalior, Adoni, Hyderabad, Marathi is also spoken by Maharashtrian emigrants worldwide, especially in the United States, United Kingdom, Israel, Mauritius, and Canada. Marathi is the language of Maharashtra and co-official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra. In Goa, Konkani is the official language, however. Marathi is included among the languages which stand a part of the Eight Schedule of the Constitution of India, the contemporary grammatical rules described by Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad and endorsed by the Government of Maharashtra are supposed to take precedence in standard written Marathi. Traditions of Marathi Linguistics and the rules give special status to tatsamas. This special status expects the rules for tatsamas to be followed as in Sanskrit and this practice provides Marathi with a large treasure of Sanskrit words to cope with demands of new technical words whenever needed. Jawaharlal Nehru University has announced plans to establish a department for Marathi. Marathi Day is celebrated on 27 February, the birthday of poet Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar, Indian languages, including Marathi, that belong to the Indo-Aryan language family are derived from early forms of Prakrit. Marathi is one of languages that further descend from Maharashtri Prakrit. Marathi literature began and grew owing to the rise of the Seuna dynasty of Devgiri, further growth and usage of the language was because of two religious sects – the Mahanubhava and Varkari panthans – who adopted Marathi as the medium for preaching their doctrines of devotion. Marathi had attained a place in court life by the time of the Seuna kings

16. Ostracism – Ostracism was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. While some instances clearly expressed popular anger at the citizen, ostracism was often used preemptively and it was used as a way of neutralizing someone thought to be a threat to the state or potential tyrant. It has been called an honourable exile by scholar P. J. Rhodes, the word ostracism continues to be used for various cases of social shunning. The name is derived from the ostraka, referring to the shards that were used as voting tokens. Broken pottery, abundant and virtually free, served as a kind of scrap paper, each year the Athenians were asked in the assembly whether they wished to hold an ostracism. The question was put in the sixth of the ten months used for business under the democracy. If they voted yes, then an ostracism would be two months later. The presiding officials counted the ostraka submitted and sorted the names into separate piles, according to a fragment of Philochorus, the winner of the ostracism must have obtained at least 6,000 votes. The person nominated had ten days to leave the city, if he attempted to return, the penalty was death. Notably, the property of the man banished was not confiscated, after the ten years, he was allowed to return without stigma. Similarly, Cimon, ostracised in 461 BC, was recalled during an emergency, Ostracism was crucially different from Athenian law at the time, there was no charge, and no defence could be mounted by the person expelled. The two stages of the procedure ran in the order from that used under almost any trial system — here it is as if a jury are first asked Do you want to find someone guilty. And subsequently asked Whom do you wish to accuse, equally out of place in a judicial framework is perhaps the institutions most peculiar feature, that it can take place at most once a year, and only for one person. In this it resembles the Greek pharmakos or scapegoat — though in contrast, by contrast, an Athenian trial needed the initiative of a particular citizen-prosecutor. While prosecution often led to a counterattack, no response was possible in the case of ostracism as responsibility lay with the polity as a whole. In contrast to a trial, ostracism generally reduced political tension rather than increased it, however, ten years of exile usually resolved whatever had prompted the expulsion. Ostracism was simply a measure, the concept of serving out the full sentence did not apply as it was a preventative measure. One curious window on the practicalities of ostracism comes from the cache of 190 ostraka discovered dumped in a next to the acropolis

17. Margaret Sanger – Margaret Higgins Sanger was an American birth control activist, sex educator, writer, and nurse. Sanger popularized the term control, opened the first birth control clinic in the United States. Sanger used her writings and speeches primarily to promote her way of thinking and she was prosecuted for her book Family Limitation under the Comstock Act in 1914. She was afraid of what would happen, so she fled to Britain until she knew it was safe to return to the US, Sangers efforts contributed to several judicial cases that helped legalize contraception in the United States. Sanger, who has criticized for supporting negative eugenics, remains an admired figure in the American reproductive rights movement. Her subsequent trial and appeal generated controversy, Sanger felt that in order for women to have a more equal footing in society and to lead healthier lives, they needed to be able to determine when to bear children. She also wanted to prevent so-called back-alley abortions, which were common at the time because abortions were illegal in the United States and she believed that while abortion was sometimes justified it should generally be avoided, and she considered contraception the only practical way to avoid them. In 1921, Sanger founded the American Birth Control League, which became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. In 1929, she formed the National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control, from 1952 to 1959, Sanger served as president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. She died in 1966, and is regarded as a founder of the modern birth control movement. Sanger was born Margaret Louise Higgins in 1879 in Corning, New York, to Michael Hennessey Higgins, an Irish-born stonemason and free-thinker, and Anne Purcell Higgins, a Catholic Irish-American. Michael Hennessey Higgins had emigrated to the USA at age 14 and joined the U. S. Army as a drummer at age 15, after leaving the army, Michael studied medicine and phrenology, but ultimately became a stonecutter, making stone angels, saints, and tombstones. Michael H. Higgins was a Catholic who became an atheist and her parents brought the family to Canada during the Potato Famine. Anne Higgins went through 18 pregnancies in 22 years before dying at the age of 49, Sanger was the sixth of eleven surviving children, and spent much of her youth assisting with household chores and caring for her younger siblings. Supported by her two sisters, Margaret Higgins attended Claverack College and Hudson River Institute, before enrolling in 1900 at White Plains Hospital as a nurse probationer. In 1902, she married the architect William Sanger and gave up her education, though she was plagued by a recurring active tubercular condition, Margaret Sanger bore three children, and the couple settled down to a quiet life in Westchester, New York. In 1911, after a fire destroyed their home in Hastings-on-Hudson, Margaret Sanger worked as a visiting nurse in the slums of the East Side, while her husband worked as an architect and a house painter. Already imbued with her husbands leftist politics, Margaret Sanger also threw herself into the radical politics, by the standards of the day, Sangers articles were extremely frank in their discussion of sexuality, and many New York Call readers were outraged by them

18. Marie Stopes – Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes was a British author, palaeobotanist and campaigner for eugenics and womens rights. She made significant contributions to plant palaeontology and coal classification, and was the first female academic on the faculty of the University of Manchester, with her second husband, Humphrey Verdon Roe, Stopes founded the first birth control clinic in Britain. Stopes edited the newsletter Birth Control News, which gave practical advice. Her sex manual Married Love was controversial and influential, and brought the subject of control into wide public discourse. Stopes opposed abortion, arguing that the prevention of conception was all that was needed and her father, Henry Stopes, was a brewer, engineer, architect and palaeontologist from Colchester. Her mother was Charlotte Carmichael Stopes, a Shakespearean scholar and womens rights campaigner from Edinburgh. At six weeks old, her parents took Stopes from Scotland, the family stayed briefly in Colchester then moved to London, both of her parents were members of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, where they had met. Marie was taken to meetings where she met the famous scholars of the day, at first, she was home-schooled, but from 1892 to 1894 she attended St Georges School for Girls in Edinburgh. Stopes was later sent to the North London Collegiate School, where she was a friend of Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn. Following this, Stopes earned a D. Sc. degree from University College London, in 1903 she published a study of the botany of the recently dried-up Ebbsfleet River. D. in botany in 1904. Also in 1904, she was one of the first women to be elected a fellow of the Linnean Society of London and she was also Fellow and sometime Lecturer in Palaeobotany at University College, London until 1920. She held the post of Lecturer in Palaeobotany at the University of Manchester from 1904 to 1910, during Stopess time at Manchester, she studied coal and coal balls and researched the collection of Glossopteris. This was an attempt to prove the theory of Eduard Suess concerning the existence of Gondwana or Pangaea, a chance meeting with Antarctic explorer Robert Falcon Scott during one of his fund-raising lectures in 1904 brought a possibility of proving Suesss theory. Stopess passion to prove Suesss theory led her to discuss the possibility of joining Scotts next expedition to Antarctica and she did not join the expedition, but Scott promised to bring back samples of fossils to provide evidence for the theory. Scott died during the 1912 Terra Nova Expedition, but fossils of plants from the Queen Maud Mountains found near Scotts, in 1907, Stopes went to Japan on a scientific mission. She spent eighteen months at the Imperial University, Tokyo and explored coal mines on Hokkaido for fossilised plants and she published her Japanese experiences as a diary, called Journal from Japan, a daily record of life as seen by a scientist, in 1910. In 1910, the Geological Survey of Canada commissioned Stopes to determine the age of the Fern Ledges and it is part of the Early Pennsylvanian epoch Lancaster Formation. Canadian scholars were divided between dating it to the Devonian period or to the Pennsylvanian/Upper Carboniferous period, Stopes arrived in North America before Christmas to start her research

19. Amol Palekar – Amol Palekar is a noted Indian actor, director and producer of Hindi and Marathi cinema. He studied Fine Arts at the Sir JJ School of Arts, Mumbai, as a painter, he had seven one-man exhibitions and participated in many group shows. He has been active in the avant garde theatre in India and he has been active in Marathi and Hindi theatre as an actor, director and producer since 1967. His contribution to modern Indian theatre often gets overshadowed by his popularity as an actor in Hindi films. As an actor, he was most prominent for over a decade from 1970 and his image as a boy next door contrasted with the larger-than-life heroes prevalent at that time in Indian cinema. He received one Filmfare and six State awards as Best Actor and his performances in regional language films in Marathi, Bengali, Malayalam and Kannada fetched him critical acclaim as well. He decided not to act after 1986 in order to concentrate on filmmaking, as a director, he is known for the sensitive portrayal of women, selection of classic stories from Indian literature, and perceptive handling of progressive issues. He has directed television serials on the national network such as Kachchi Dhoop, Mrignayani, Naquab. Palekar began in Marathi experimental theatre with Satyadev Dubey, and later started his own group, Aniket, Palekar made his debut in 1971 with the Marathi film Shantata. Court Chalu Aahe directed by Satyadev Dubey, which started the New Cinema Movement in Marathi, in 1974 he was cast as an actor by Basu Chatterjee in Rajnigandha, and in the surprise low-budget hit, Chhoti Si Baat. This led to other such roles in middle-class comedies, mostly alternative cinema. These were often directed by Chatterjee or Hrishikesh Mukherjee and include such films as Gol Maal and he won the Filmfare Best Actor Award for Gol Maal. He is noted for his image of the everyman who struggles to get a job, his own flat, a girlfriend/wife. In 1979, he was paired with a 16 year old Sridevi in Solva Saawan, amol played the role of a mentally retarded, handicapped man, a character played by Kamal Haasan in the original Tamil movie. In 1982 he played the role of Ravi in the Malayalam movie Olangal and he turned to directing with the Marathi film Aakriet. He showed his capabilities as a director with movies such as Thodasa Roomani Ho Jaayen, Thodasa Roomani Ho Jaayen has become a part of management courses and study pertaining to human behaviour. Paheli was Indias official entry for Best Foreign Film at the 2006 Oscars, the movie, however, did not make it to the final nominations. He has also given his voice to an HIV/AIDS education animated software tutorial created by the nonprofit organization TeachAIDS and he is willing to act once again if he is given a challenging role

20. Virtual International Authority File – The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see also records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are also being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records

21. Integrated Authority File – The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly also by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It also comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format

Dhondo Keshav Karve, (born April 18, 1858, Sheravali, India—died November 9, 1962, Poona [Pune]), Indian social reformer and educator, noted for supporting the education of women and for organizing associations for the remarriage of Hindu widows.

While an instructor in mathematics (1891–1914) at Fergusson College, Poona, Karve became concerned with breaking down orthodox Hindu opposition to widow remarriage, and he established the Widow Marriage Association in 1893. In the same year, he shocked public opinion by himself marrying a widow; his first wife had died in 1891. Karve also founded (1896) an educational institution, Hindu Widows Home, in Poona, to help widows support themselves if they could not remarry.

Karve became increasingly concerned with illiteracy among women, and on his retirement from Fergusson College he started Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey Women’s University in 1916. He later widened his social reform efforts to include the establishment of societies for village primary education and the abolition of caste. Karve’s autobiography was entitled Atmavritta (1915). On his 100th birthday he was awarded India’s highest honour, the Bharat Ratna (“Gem of India”).

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