Czytania Bibliography


The concept of Open Bibliography in science, technology and medicine (STM) is introduced as a combination of Open Source tools, Open specifications and Open bibliographic data. An Openly searchable and navigable network of bibliographic information and associated knowledge representations, a Bibliographic Knowledge Network, across all branches of Science, Technology and Medicine, has been designed and initiated. For this large scale endeavour, the engagement and cooperation of the multiple stakeholders in STM publishing - authors, librarians, publishers and administrators - is sought.


Text DataText Data FormatStructure TextBibliographic DataBibliographic Information

BibJSON, a simple structured text data format (informed by BibTex, Dublin Core, PRISM and JSON) suitable for both serialisation and storage of large quantities of bibliographic data is presented. BibJSON, and companion bibliographic software systems BibServer and OpenBiblio promote the quantity and quality of Openly available bibliographic data, and encourage the development of improved algorithms and services for processing the wealth of information and knowledge embedded in bibliographic data across all fields of scholarship.

Major providers of bibliographic information have joined in promoting the concept of Open Bibliography and in working together to create prototype nodes for the Bibliographic Knowledge Network. These contributions include large-scale content from PubMed and ArXiv, data available from Open Access publishers, and bibliographic collections generated by the members of the project. The concept of a distributed bibliography (BibSoup) is explored.

Technical note

This paper was created using the technologies described in the text. All bibliographic entry references and bibliographic entries were managed in BibJSON then included in the HTML document following the Scholarly HTML convention. The document itself is formally consistent with these specifications and can be read as a normal HTML document. It would alternatively be possible to embed bibliographic records in the document directly from BibJSON via JavaScript The "flat HTML" should be taken as the definitive version, and can be re-purposed into other formats (Additional file 1).


Electronic supplementary material

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors' contributions

All authors took equal parts in creating the concepts and tools reported and all authors wrote and revised the manuscript.

Authors’ Affiliations


Cottage Labs, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK


Open Knowledge Foundation, Cambridge, UK


University of Edinburgh School of Informatics, Edinburgh, UK


Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK


Departments of Statistics and Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, USA


ptsefton, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia


© Jones et al; licensee Chemistry Central Ltd. 2011

When this project found it's way to me last September, it was in a very muddled state. The research was done, hundreds of records had been retrieved from OCLC and Library of Congress on the subject of Indian Philosophy, Vedanta specifically. Unfortunately, in the process of organizing the records using a specifically created database, very pertinent information (i.e. publishers, year of publication, etc.) was lost from many of the records. The database also failed to correctly alphabetize the entire bibliography. This was possibly due to an inability of the computer to correctly interpret the Indian language diacritical marks. The two major hindrances to my completing this project were my unfamiliarity with the Indian language and lack of sufficient time. After some time of struggling with the language barrier, it was decided that we would create this particular bibliography using only those titles that were written in the English language or those that had been translated into English. Using the accession numbers of the records, I was able to access those with missing information through the OCLC FirstSearch and Library of Congress databases. The process was time consuming, but not difficult. If I had more time to devote, the project would have been completed much earlier. My job was to edit this bibliography with the eye of a librarian and I feel satisfied with the results. The records now contain any missing information in the correct place and the bibliography is finally in true alphabetical order.



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