Step 2: Formulate a provisional thesis statement
As we saw in the Essay Model diagram, the thesis statement is positioned as the last sentence in the first paragraph – the Introduction. The preceding sentences in the introduction prepare the reader to consider the THESIS STATEMENT, which is the most important sentence in the entire essay. If you were asked to summarise, in one sentence, your 500-word or 10,000-word essay, that sentence would be the thesis statement.
In an expository or descriptive essay, the thesis statement should group together the various aspects of the topic that you will be describing; in an analytical essay, it should state your findings; and in an argumentative essay, it should express the position you’re taking on an issue.
The following points are important to remember when you’re formulating your thesis statement:
- The thesis statement is a sentence that says clearly, precisely, and concisely what the essay is all about.
- The thesis statement is the essay’s ‘big idea’
- The thesis statement must be explained, supported, or defended in the paragraphs that make up the body of the essay.
- Everything relates back to the thesis.
- The thesis statement needs to be both arguable (it sets out a hypothesis, position, or perspective – not just the facts – and supportable (there must be adequate evidence or points of argument to convince the reader of the validity of the thesis).
- The thesis statement needs to be concise.
As they read through the essay, the reader needs to see the thesis being supported.
To demonstrate, let’s develop a thesis statement for Model Essay One (descriptive) and Model Essay Two (argumentative).
500 words equates to three to five paragraphs. Using a five paragraph model, the essay looks like this: one introductory paragraph, three middle paragraphs, and one concluding paragraph – the three middle paragraphs represent the body of the essay, in which you present your evidence or argument.
A paragraph can be made up of any number of sentences, but generally, a paragraph is around 3 to 5 sentences.
Paragraphs one and five function as the opening and closing frames of the case or argument you are presenting. The three middle paragraphs are where you present your argument or evidence supporting the thesis statement. This means that you can reasonably present three points of argument or evidence (each paragraph should make just one main point).
In Model Essay One, you’re asked to identify the characteristics that make a successful essay. You could probably identify many characteristics, but you have only three paragraphs, so you need to tailor your response to fit your 500-word essay. A simple solution is to focus on one characteristic for each paragraph. Your provisional thesis statement might therefore be:
A successful essay has three key elements: A, B, and C.
This sets clear parameters for your reading and note-making. It also gives you a hook to hang your essay on; you will refine it as you read to gather research material on the characteristics of a successful essay. From your reading, you will identify three elements that you will make a case for as the most important. Although you won’t be developing a ‘for and against’ argument, you will have to convince your reader of your case. In this example, there’s no definitive ‘right’ answer – there are many important characteristics from which to choose – but you will have to justify your choice and convince your reader of its validity.
As we saw in the Directive Verbs section, ‘discuss’ means that you have to ‘examine, giving the details and the points for and against’ and that you must ‘develop a logical argument backed by sound evidence’. Usually the essay topic is complex and, therefore, cannot be addressed by a simple ‘for’ or ‘against’ argument; there will always be both points for and points against, and all these points need to be acknowledged.
However, to write an effective argumentative essay, you will need to begin by taking a definite position on your topic, and expressing your position in a clear, arguable thesis statement, which you then defend with evidence and logic. In Model Essay Two, you have to take a position either ‘for’ or ‘against’ the validity of essay writing as a component of student assessment. As you read and research, you may want to modify your thesis statement or even take the opposite position from the one you started with – this is why at this stage we call it the provisional thesis statement.
A provisional thesis statement for Model Essay Two might be:
- Setting essay assignments as a component of student assessment at university is a valid practice.
Alternatively, it might be:
- Setting essay assignments as a component of student assessment at university is not a valid practice.
In supporting either of these thesis statements, you need to build a reasoned argument in the middle paragraphs (rather than simply presenting an organised list of points as you would in a descriptive essay).
It is essential that you write down a provisional thesis statement before you begin reading and researching, because this will help focus and give purpose to your reading. Do remember, however, that it is a provisional statement only; be prepared to modify it as you gather information from your reading.Previous PageNext Page
Paragraphs & Topic Sentences
A paragraph is a series of sentences that are organized and coherent, and are all related to a single topic. Almost every piece of writing you do that is longer than a few sentences should be organized into paragraphs. This is because paragraphs show a reader where the subdivisions of an essay begin and end, and thus help the reader see the organization of the essay and grasp its main points.
Paragraphs can contain many different kinds of information. A paragraph could contain a series of brief examples or a single long illustration of a general point. It might describe a place, character, or process; narrate a series of events; compare or contrast two or more things; classify items into categories; or describe causes and effects. Regardless of the kind of information they contain, all paragraphs share certain characteristics. One of the most important of these is a topic sentence.
A well-organized paragraph supports or develops a single controlling idea, which is expressed in a sentence called the topic sentence. A topic sentence has several important functions: it substantiates or supports an essay’s thesis statement; it unifies the content of a paragraph and directs the order of the sentences; and it advises the reader of the subject to be discussed and how the paragraph will discuss it. Readers generally look to the first few sentences in a paragraph to determine the subject and perspective of the paragraph. That’s why it’s often best to put the topic sentence at the very beginning of the paragraph. In some cases, however, it’s more effective to place another sentence before the topic sentence—for example, a sentence linking the current paragraph to the previous one, or one providing background information.
Although most paragraphs should have a topic sentence, there are a few situations when a paragraph might not need a topic sentence. For example, you might be able to omit a topic sentence in a paragraph that narrates a series of events, if a paragraph continues developing an idea that you introduced (with a topic sentence) in the previous paragraph, or if all the sentences and details in a paragraph clearly refer—perhaps indirectly—to a main point. The vast majority of your paragraphs, however, should have a topic sentence.
Most paragraphs in an essay have a three-part structure—introduction, body, and conclusion. You can see this structure in paragraphs whether they are narrating, describing, comparing, contrasting, or analyzing information. Each part of the paragraph plays an important role in communicating your meaning to your reader.
Introduction: the first section of a paragraph; should include the topic sentence and any other sentences at the beginning of the paragraph that give background information or provide a transition.
Body: follows the introduction; discusses the controlling idea, using facts, arguments, analysis, examples, and other information.
Conclusion: the final section; summarizes the connections between the information discussed in the body of the paragraph and the paragraph’s controlling idea.
The following paragraph illustrates this pattern of organization. In this paragraph the topic sentence and concluding sentence (CAPITALIZED) both help the reader keep the paragraph’s main point in mind.
SCIENTISTS HAVE LEARNED TO SUPPLEMENT THE SENSE OF SIGHT IN NUMEROUS WAYS. In front of the tiny pupil of the eye they put, on Mount Palomar, a great monocle 200 inches in diameter, and with it see 2000 times farther into the depths of space. Or they look through a small pair of lenses arranged as a microscope into a drop of water or blood, and magnify by as much as 2000 diameters the living creatures there, many of which are among man’s most dangerous enemies. Or, if we want to see distant happenings on earth, they use some of the previously wasted electromagnetic waves to carry television images which they re-create as light by whipping tiny crystals on a screen with electrons in a vacuum. Or they can bring happenings of long ago and far away as colored motion pictures, by arranging silver atoms and color-absorbing molecules to force light waves into the patterns of original reality. Or if we want to see into the center of a steel casting or the chest of an injured child, they send the information on a beam of penetrating short-wave X rays, and then convert it back into images we can see on a screen or photograph. THUS ALMOST EVERY TYPE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION YET DISCOVERED HAS BEEN USED TO EXTEND OUR SENSE OF SIGHT IN SOME WAY.
George Harrison, “Faith and the Scientist”
In a coherent paragraph, each sentence relates clearly to the topic sentence or controlling idea, but there is more to coherence than this. If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader.
Along with the smooth flow of sentences, a paragraph’s coherence may also be related to its length. If you have written a very long paragraph, one that fills a double-spaced typed page, for example, you should check it carefully to see if it should start a new paragraph where the original paragraph wanders from its controlling idea. On the other hand, if a paragraph is very short (only one or two sentences, perhaps), you may need to develop its controlling idea more thoroughly, or combine it with another paragraph.
A number of other techniques that you can use to establish coherence in paragraphs are described below.
Repeat key words or phrases. Particularly in paragraphs in which you define or identify an important idea or theory, be consistent in how you refer to it. This consistency and repetition will bind the paragraph together and help your reader understand your definition or description.
Create parallel structures. Parallel structures are created by constructing two or more phrases or sentences that have the same grammatical structure and use the same parts of speech. By creating parallel structures you make your sentences clearer and easier to read. In addition, repeating a pattern in a series of consecutive sentences helps your reader see the connections between ideas. In the paragraph above about scientists and the sense of sight, several sentences in the body of the paragraph have been constructed in a parallel way. The parallel structures (which have been emphasized) help the reader see that the paragraph is organized as a set of examples of a general statement.
Be consistent in point of view, verb tense, and number. Consistency in point of view, verb tense, and number is a subtle but important aspect of coherence. If you shift from the more personal "you" to the impersonal “one,” from past to present tense, or from “a man” to “they,” for example, you make your paragraph less coherent. Such inconsistencies can also confuse your reader and make your argument more difficult to follow.
Use transition words or phrases between sentences and between paragraphs. Transitional expressions emphasize the relationships between ideas, so they help readers follow your train of thought or see connections that they might otherwise miss or misunderstand. The following paragraph shows how carefully chosen transitions (CAPITALIZED) lead the reader smoothly from the introduction to the conclusion of the paragraph.
I don’t wish to deny that the flattened, minuscule head of the large-bodied "stegosaurus" houses little brain from our subjective, top-heavy perspective, BUT I do wish to assert that we should not expect more of the beast. FIRST OF ALL, large animals have relatively smaller brains than related, small animals. The correlation of brain size with body size among kindred animals (all reptiles, all mammals, FOR EXAMPLE) is remarkably regular. AS we move from small to large animals, from mice to elephants or small lizards to Komodo dragons, brain size increases, BUT not so fast as body size. IN OTHER WORDS, bodies grow faster than brains, AND large animals have low ratios of brain weight to body weight. IN FACT, brains grow only about two-thirds as fast as bodies. SINCE we have no reason to believe that large animals are consistently stupider than their smaller relatives, we must conclude that large animals require relatively less brain to do as well as smaller animals. IF we do not recognize this relationship, we are likely to underestimate the mental power of very large animals, dinosaurs in particular.
Stephen Jay Gould, “Were Dinosaurs Dumb?”
SOME USEFUL TRANSITIONS
(modified from Diana Hacker, A Writer’s Reference)
- To show addition:
- again, and, also, besides, equally important, first (second, etc.), further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, moreover, next, too
- To give examples:
- for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrate
- To compare:
- also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly
- To contrast:
- although, and yet, at the same time, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, though, yet
- To summarize or conclude:
- all in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to sum up
- To show time:
- after, afterward, as, as long as, as soon as, at last, before, during, earlier, finally, formerly, immediately, later, meanwhile, next, since, shortly, subsequently, then, thereafter, until, when, while
- To show place or direction:
- above, below, beyond, close, elsewhere, farther on, here, nearby, opposite, to the left (north, etc.)
- To indicate logical relationship:
- accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if, otherwise, since, so, then, therefore, thus
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