African Images Essays In African Iconology

Written by Nicholle Lamartina Palacios~

 “Panofsky’s essays and many other scholarly essays on iconography have been limited to examining only the iconography of European art.”

Erwin Panofsky’s essay, An Introduction to Iconography and Iconology, has been highly influential in the study of iconography and has been an essential building block for many interpretations. However, Panofsky’s essays and many other scholarly essays on iconography have been limited to examining only the iconography of European art. Panofsky limits the use of his own methods through his title: “Iconography and Iconology: An Introduction to the Study of Renaissance Art.Others, however, expand on Panofky’s ideas and use them in interpretations of non-Renaissance art, such as Dale Kinney in his interpretation of the Medieval Apse Mosaic of Santa Maria in Trastevere. In this essay I would like to interpret the Yale University Art Gallery’s Buddhapada (ca. 2nd century CE), a Buddhist sculpture from the ancient South Asian Gandhara, through the lens of Panofsky’s “three levels of meaning in representational imagery, and three stages of decipherment” [1] in order to examine their practicality in non-Western art.

Panofsky defines iconography as a study that “concerns itself with the subject matter or meaning of works of art, as opposed to their form.” However, the first stage in deciphering iconographic meaning is identifying primary or natural subject matter, which is done through identifying pure forms. A description based on these forms in the context of Buddhapada (shown in the image above) involves a discussion of the large foot-prints that cover most of the grey schist block the sculpture is created on. Other formal elements include the two women dressed in feathered headdresses, the lotus flowers spread out throughout the artwork, and the cross-like shapes chiseled into the toes.

The next step is realizing secondary or conventional subject matter, in which the formal elements are analyzed for their symbolic meanings. The identification of these images is what Panofsky calls “iconography.” Panofsky states that it is important to note that in this phase of interpretation much of what is identified will depend on our subjectivity and personal experience; this is why a historical understanding of the symbols is needed. Though before studying Buddhist iconography I could not understand Buddhapada beyond its formal qualities, after studying the historical meanings behind certain Buddhist images, my whole reading of the piece changed. In my post-study analysis I could decipher the images on a much deeper level. I came to realize that the two enormous foot-prints at the center symbolize Buddha and his extreme spiritual supremacy that has led to his surpassing of a full physical body. The two women at the sides are yakshas, nature spirits, that pray to the image of Buddha and therefore serve as symbols of proper religious devotion. The lotus flowers represent nature and balance, and are circumscribed by circular engravings that bring to mind the Buddhist wheel (Dharmachakra) that symbolizes the teachings of Buddha, and the cross signs are important figures that represent Indian peace signs.

The third stage of decipherment is “iconology” – “ascertaining… underlying principles which reveal the basic attitude of a nation, a period, a class, a religious or philosophical persuasion.” An example of this would be noting the historical importance of the use of the large foot-prints as the primary portrayal of Buddha in Buddhapada, rather than an anthropomorphic representation. This is of cultural and religious significance because it reveals the trend of using aniconic images in Buddhist art during the time period this piece was created, a trend that favored the use of symbols to refer to the Buddha and often abstained from representing his full humanly form.

Though it has been argued that there should be a reconsideration of Panofsky’s concept[2] of iconography, it does serve as a good guide to understanding works from different perspectives. It also encourages using artworks as documents that are part of a larger cultural context. As noted in the interpretation of Buddhapada, the concept of iconography be used in the analysis of non-Western art as well as European art.

[1]   Dale Kinney, The Apse Mosaic of Santa Maria in Trastevere, Pg 22
[2]   Keith Moxey, The Politics of Iconology, Pg 1

Like this:

LikeLoading...

Related

artart historyiconographyindiaNicholle Lamartina Palacios

AbíódúnRowland. 1975. “Ifa Art Objects: An Interpretation Based on Oral Traditions,” pp. 421–69 in AbimbolaWande (ed.) Yoruba Oral Tradition: Poetry in Music, Dance and Drama. Ifȩ: Department of African Languages and Literatures, University of Ifè.

AbíódúnRowland. 1980. “Mythical Allusions in Yoruba Ritualistic Art: Orí-Inú, Visual and Verbal Metaphor.” Paper presented at the Conference on the Relations between the Verbal and Visual Arts in Africa, Philadelphia.

AbíódúnRowland. 1983. “Identity and the Artistic Process in the Yorùbá Aesthetic Concept of Iwà.” Journal of Cultures and Ideas. 1/1: 13–30.

AdamsMarie Jeanne. 1973. “Structural Aspects of a Village Art.” American Anthropologist75/1: 265–79.

AdamsMarie Jeanne. 1980. “Afterword: Spheres of Men's and Women's Creativity.” Ethnologische Zeitschrift Zürich1: 163–67.

AdamsMarie Jeanne. 1983. “Where Two Dimensions Meet: The Kuba of Zaire,” pp. 40–55 in WashburnDorothy K. (ed.) Structure and Cognition in Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

AdandéAlexandre. 1955. “Fonctions et significations sociales des masques en Afrique noire.” Présence Africaine, n.s. 1/1, 2: 24–38.

AdepegbaC.O.1983. “Ara: The Factor of Creativity in Yoruba Art.” The Nigerian Field48/1, 4: 53–66.

AlmagorUri. 1983. “Colours That Match and Clash: An Explication of Meaning in a Pastoral Society,” RES5: 49–73.

ArensWilliam and KarpIvan. In press. The Creativity of Power. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

ArmstrongRobert Plant. 1971. The Affecting Presence: An Essay in Humanistic Anthropology. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

ArnoldiMary Jo. 1980. “Bambara Puppet Theatre: The Relationship between Visual and Verbal Arts in Performance.” Paper presented at the Conference on the Relations between the Verbal and Visual Arts in Africa, Philadelphia.

ArnoldiMary Jo. 1986. “Puppet Theatre: Form and Ideology in Bamana Performances.” Empirical Studies of the Arts4/2: 131–50.

AronsonLisa. 1980. “Patronage and Akwete Weaving.” African Arts13/3: 62-6, 91.

AronsonLisa. 1984. “Women in the Arts,” pp. 119–38 in HayMargaret Jean and StichterSharon (eds.) African Women South of the Sahara. London: Longman.

BaduelCéline and MeillassouxClaude. 1975. “Modes et codes de la coiffure Ouest-Africaine.” L'Ethnographie, n.s. 69: 11–59.

BalandierGeorges. 1966. “Les Conditions sociologiques de I'art noir,” pp. 59–67 in L'Art Nègre. Paris: Présence Africaine.

BarleyNigel. 1984. “Placing the West African Potter,” in PictonJohn (ed.) Earthenware in Asia and Africa. London: Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, University of London.

BascomWilliam R. 1962. “African Arts and Social Control.” African Studies Bulletin5/2: 22–5.

BascomWilliam R.1973. “A Yoruba Master Carver: Duga of Meko,” pp. 62–78 in d'AzevedoWarren L. (ed.) The Traditional Artist in African Societies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

BascomWilliam R.1976. “Changing African Art,” pp. 303–19 in GraburnNelson H. H. (ed.) Ethnic and Tourist Arts. Berkeley: University of California Press.

BascomWilliam R. and HerskovitsMelville J. (eds.). 1959. Continuity and Change in African Cultures. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

BattestiniS.P.X.1984. “Sémiotique de l'adire.” Semiotica49/1, 2: 73–93.

BaumannHermann. 1969. Afrikanische Plastik und sakrales Königtum: ein sozialer Aspekt traditioneller afrikanisher Kunst. Munich: Verlag des Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenshaften.

BaxandallMichael. 1972. Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

BaxandallMichael. 1985. “Art, Society, and the Bouguer Principle.” Representations12: 32–43.

BayEdna G.1985. Asen: Iron Altars of the Fon People of Benin. Atlanta: Emory University Museum of Art and Archaeology.

BeidelmanT.O.1970. “Some Sociological Implications of Culture,” pp. 499–527 in McKinneyJohn C. and TiryakianEdward A. (eds.) Theoretical Sociology: Perspectives and Developments. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

BeidelmanT.O.1972. “The Kaguru House.” Anthropos67/5, 6: 690–707.

BeierUlli. 1963. Yemi Bisiri, a Yoruba Brass Caster. Ibadan: Mbari Publications.

Ben-AmosPaula. 1973. “Symbolism in Olokun Mud Art.” African Arts6/4: 28-31, 95.

Ben-AmosPaula. 1975. “Professionals and Amateurs in Benin Court Carving,” pp. 170–89 in McCallDaniel F. and BayEdna G. (eds.) African Images: Essays in African Iconology. New York: Africana Publishing Company.

Ben-AmosPaula. 1976a. “'A la Recherche du Temps Perdu': On Being an Ebony-Carver in Benin,” pp. 320–33 in GraburnNelson H.H. (ed.) Ethnic and Tourist Arts. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ben-AmosPaula. 1976b. “Men and Animals in Benin Art.” Man, n.s. 11/2: 243–52.

Ben-AmosPaula. 1977. “Pidgin Languages and Tourist Arts.” Studies in the Anthropology of Visual Communication4/2: 128–39.

Ben-AmosPaula. 1978. “Owina N'Ido: Royal Weavers of Benin.” African Arts11/4: 48-53, 95–6.

Ben-AmosPaula. 1981. “There Are Three Things in the Palace That Are Threatening: Royal Ritual Symbolism in Benin.” Paper presented at the Seminar on Visual Art as Social Commentary in Africa, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

Ben-AmosPaula. 1984. “Royal Art and Ideology in 18th Century Benin.” Iowa Studies in African Art1: 67–86.

Ben-AmosPaula. 1986. “Artistic Creativity in [the] Benin Kingdom.” African Arts19/3: 60-3, 83–4.

Ben-AmosPaula and OmoregieOsarenren. 1969. “Ekpo Ritual in Avbiama Village.” African Arts2/4: 8-13, 79.

BernatzikHugo A.1932. “Meine Expedition nach Portugiesisch-Guinea.” Atlantis4: 197–211.

BiebuyckDaniel P.1954. “Function of a Lega Mask.” International Archives of Ethnography47/1: 108–20.

BiebuyckDaniel P.1968. “Art as a Didactic Device in African Initiation Systems.” African Forum3/4, 4/1: 35–43.

BiebuyckDaniel P. (ed.) 1969. Tradition and Creativity in Tribal Art. Berkeley: University of California Press.

BiebuyckDaniel P.1972. “The Kindi Aristocrats and Their Art Among the Lega,” pp. 7–20 in FraserDouglas and ColeHerbert M. (eds.) African Art and Leadership. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

BiebuyckDaniel P.1973. Lega Culture: Art, Initiation, and Moral Philosophy Among a Central African People. Berkeley: University of California Press.

BiebuyckDaniel P.1976. “The Decline of Lega Sculptural Art,” pp. 334–49 in GraburnNelson H.H. (ed.) Ethnic and Tourist Arts. Berkeley: University of California Press.

BiebuyckDaniel P.1977. “Symbolism of the Lega Stool.” Working Papers in the Traditional Arts, No. 2. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues.

BiebuyckDaniel P.1979. “The Frog and Other Animals in Lega Art and Initiation.” Africa-Tervuren25/3: 76–84.

BiebuyckDaniel P.1982. “Lega Dress as Cultural Artifact.” African Arts15/3: 59-65, 92.

BiebuyckDaniel P.1983. “African Art Studies Since 1957: Achievements and Directions.” African Studies Review26/3, 4: 99–118.

BlierSuzanne Preston. 1976. Beauty and the Beast: A Study in Contrasts. New York: Tribal Arts Gallery Two.

BlierSuzanne Preston. 1981. “The Dance of Death: Notes on the Architecture and Staging of Tamberma Funeral Performances.” RES2: 107–43.

BlierSuzanne Preston. 1983. “Houses are Human: Architectural Self-Images of Africa's Tamberma.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians42/4: 371–82.

BoasFranz. 1927. Primitive Art. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

BohannanPaul J.1956. “Beauty and Scarification Amongst the Tiv.” Man56/129: 117–21.

BohannanPaul J.1961. “Artist and Critic in an African Society,” pp. 85–94 in SmithMarian W. (ed.) The Artist in Tribal Society. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

BooneSylvia A.1986. Radiance From the Waters: Ideals of Feminine Beauty in Mende Art. New Haven: Yale University Press.

BorgattiJean M.1979. From the Hands of Lawrence Ajanaku. Museum of Cultural History Pamphlet Series, Vol. 1, No. 6. Los Angeles: University of California.

BorgattiJean M.1982. “Okpella Masks: In Search of the Parameters of the Beautiful and the Grotesque.” Studies in Visual Communication8/3: 28–40.

BourdieuPierre. 1973. “The Berber House,” pp. 98–110 in DouglasMary (ed.) Rules and Meanings. Harmondsworth: Penguin Education.

BradburyR.E.1973. “Ezomo's Ikegobo and the Benin Cult of the Hand,” pp. 251–70 in BradburyR.E. (ed.) Benin Studies. London: Oxford University Press.

BrainRobert. 1980. Art and Society in Africa. London: Longman.

BrainRobert and PollockAdam. 1971. Bangwa Funerary Sculpture. London: Duckworth.

BraithwaiteMary. 1982. “Decoration as Ritual Symbol: A Theoretical Proposal and an Ethnographic Study in Southern Sudan,” pp. 80–8 in HodderIan (ed.) Symbolic and Structural Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

BrayJennifer M.1969. “The Craft Structure of a Traditional Yoruba Town.” Transactions and Papers of the Institute of British Geographers. 46: 179–93.

BreidenbachPaul S.1976. “Colour Symbolism and Ideology in a Ghanaian Healing Movement.” Africa46/2: 137–45.

Brett-SmithSarah C.1980. “Speech Made Visible: The Irregular as a System of Meaning.” Paper presented at the Conference on the Relations Between the Verbal and Visual Arts in Africa, Philadelphia.

Brett-SmithSarah C.1982. “Symbolic Blood: Cloths for Excised Women.” RES3: 15–31.

BrinkJames T.1981. “Dialectics of Aesthetic Form in Bamana Art.” Paper presented at the Panel on Mande Art and Ideology, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

BunzelRuth. 1929. The Pueblo Potter. Reprint. New York: Dover Publications, 1972.

Calame-GriauleGeneviève. 1951. “Le vêtement dogon, confection et usage.” Journal de la Société des Africanistes21/2: 151–62.

CampbellKenneth F.1981. “Le lćopard, le serpent et le crocodile.” Arts d'Afrique Noire38: 16–28.

CarrollKevin F.1961. “Three Generations of Yoruba Carvers.” Ibadan12: 21–4.

CarrollKevin F.1967. Yoruba Religious Carving. London: Geoffrey Chapman.

ChappelT.J.H.1972. “Critical Carvers: A Case Study.” Man, n.s. 7/2: 296–307.

ChappelT.J.H.1973. “The Death of a Cult in Northern Nigeria. African Arts6/4: 70-4, 96.

ChappelT.J.H.1977. Decorated Gourds in North-Eastern Nigeria. London: Ethnographica.

CharbonnierG. (ed.) 1969. Conversations with Claude Lévi-Strauss. London: Cape.

ChildIrvin L. and SirotoLeon. 1965. “BaKwele and American Esthetic Evaluations Compared.” Ethnology4/4: 349–60.

ClémentPierre. 1948. “Le forgeron en Afrique noire: quelques attitudes du groupe a son égard.” La Revue de Géographie Humaine et d'Ethnologie1/2: 35–58.

ColbyBenjamin N., FernandezJames W. and KronenfeldDavid B.1981. “Toward a Convergence of Cognitive and Symbolic Anthropology.” American Ethnologist8/3: 422–50.

ColeHerbert M.1979. “Living Art Among the Samburu,” pp. 87–102 in CordwellJustine M. and SchwarzRonald A. (eds.) The Fabrics of Culture. The Hague: Mouton.

ColeHerbert M.1982. Mbari: Art and Life Among the Owerri Igbo. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

ColeHerbert M.1985. “Introduction: The Mask, Masking, and Masquerade Arts in Africa,” pp. 15–27 in ColeHerbert M. (ed.) I Am Not Myself: The Art of African Masquerade. Museum of Cultural History Monograph Series, No. 26. Los Angeles: University of California.

ColeHerbert M. and AniakorChike C.1984. Igbo Arts: Community and Cosmos. Los Angeles: Museum of Cultural History, University of California.

ColeHerbert M. and RossDoran H.1977. The Arts of Ghana. Los Angeles: Museum of Cultural History, University of California.

CordwellJustine M.1952. “Some Aesthetic Aspects of Yoruba and Benin Cultures. PhD dissertation, Northwestern University.

CordwellJustine M.1959. “African Art,” pp. 28–48 in BascomWilliam R. and HerskovitsMelville J. (eds.) Continuity and Change in African Cultures. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

CoryHans. 1956. African Figurines: Their Ceremonial Use in Puberty Rites in Tanganyika. London: Faber and Faber.

CrowleyDaniel J.1958. “Aesthetic Judgement and Cultural Relativism.” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism17/2: 187–93.

CrowleyDaniel J.1966. “An African Aesthetic.” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism24/4: 519–24.

CrowleyDaniel J.1968. “Innovation in African Art: An Ethnological View,” pp. 175–77 in Actes du Cinquième Congrès International d'Esthétique, Amsterdam, 1964. Le Haye: Mouton and Co.

CrowleyDaniel J.1970. “The Contemporary-Traditional Art Market in Africa.” African Arts4/1: 43-9, 80.

CrowleyDaniel J.1972. “Chokwe: Political Art in a Plebian Society,” pp. 21–39 in FraserDouglas and ColeHerbert M. (eds.) African Art and Leadership. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

CrowleyDaniel J.1973. “Aesthetic Value and Professionalism in African Art: Three Cases From the Katanga Chokwe,” pp. 221–49 in d'AzevedoWarren L. (ed.) The Traditional Artist in African Societies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

DalyM. Catherine, EicherJoanne B. and ErekosimaTonye V.1986. “Male and Female Artistry in Kalabari Dress.” African Arts19/3: 48-51, 83.

DarkPhilip J.1973. An Introduction to Benin Art and Technology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

DavenportWilliam. 1973. “The Interpretation of Symbolism in Primitive Art.” Paper presented at the College Art Association Meeting, New York.

Davis-RobertsChristopher. 1980. “Emblem and Imagery: An Analysis of Tabwa Diviners' Headdresses.” Paper presented at the Conference on the Relations Between the Verbal and Visual Arts in Africa, Philadelphia.

D'AzevedoWarren L.1958. “A Structural Approach to Esthetics: Toward a Definition of Art in Anthropology.” American Anthropologist60/4: 702–14.

D'AzevedoWarren L.1973a. “Mask Makers and Myth in Western Liberia.” pp. 126–50 in ForgeAnthony (ed.) Primitive Art and Society. London: Oxford University Press.

D'AzevedoWarren L.1973b. “Sources of Gola Artistry,” pp. 282–340 in d'AzevedoWarren L. (ed.) The Traditional Artist in African Societies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

D'AzevedoWarren L. (ed.). 1973c. The Traditional Artist in African Societies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

De GanaySolange. 1949a. “Aspects de mythologie et de symbolique bambara.” Journal de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique42: 181–201.

De GanaySolange. 1949b. “On a Form of Cicatrization Among the Bambara.” Man49/65: 53–5.

De HeuschLuc. 1956. “Le symbolisme du forgeron en Afrique.” Reflets du monde10: 57–70.

De MaretPierre. 1980. “Ceux qui jouent avec le feu: la place du forgeron en Afrique centrale.” Africa50/3: 263–79.

DeMottBarbara. 1982. Dogon Masks: A Structural Study of Form and Meaning. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press.

DeweyWilliam J.1986a. “Shona Aesthetics.” Paper presented at the Triennial Symposium on African Art, Los Angeles.

DeweyWilliam J.1986b. “Shona Male and Female Artistry.” African Arts19/3: 64-7, 84.

DickersonSara Jane Hollis. 1979. “Benin Artist Idah: Court Art and Personal Style.” Interdisciplinary Studies (SUNO) 2/2.

DieterlenGermaine. 1951. Essai sur la religion bambara. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

DieterlenGermaine. 1965–1966. “Contribution à l'étude des forgerons en Afrique occidentale.” Annuaire de l'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. Section des Sciences Religieuses73: 1–28.

DieterlenGermaine. 1968. “A Contribution to the Study of Traditional Architecture in Negro-Africa,” pp. 295–306 in Colloquium on Negro Art. Dakar: Editions Presence Africaine.

DieterlenGermaine. 1970. “La serrure et sa clef (Dogon, Mali),” pp. 7–28 in PouillonJean and MarandaPierre (eds.) Echanges et communications: mélanges offerts à Claude Lévi-Strauss a l'occasion de son 60 ème anniversaire. The Hague: Mouton.

DilleyRoy. 1986. “Tukulor Weavers and the Organisation of Their Craft in Village and Town.” Africa56/2: 123–47.

DittmerKunz. 1968. “Medieval Art in the Royal Courts of West Africa,” pp. 67–72 in Colloquium on Negro Art. Dakar: Editions Présence Africaine.

DonnerEtta. 1940. “Kunst und Handwerk in No-Liberia.” Baessler-Archiv23/2, 3: 45–110.

DouglasMary. 1966. Purity and Danger. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

DrewalHenry John. 1977. “Art and the Perception of Women in Yorùbá Culture.” Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines17/4: 545–67.

DrewalHenry John. 1980. African Artistry: Technique and Aesthetics in Yoruba Sculpture. Atlanta: High Museum of Art.

DrewalHenry John. 1984. “Art, History, and the Individual: A New Perspective for the Study of African Visual Traditions.” Iowa Studies in African Art1: 87–114.

DrewalHenry John and DrewalMargaret Thompson. 1983. Gęlędę: Art and Female Power Among the Yoruba. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

DrewalMargaret Thompson. 1977. “Projections from the Top in Yoruba Art.” African Arts11/1: 43-9, 91–2.

DrewalMarguret Thompson and DrewalHenry John. 1980. “Composing Time and Space in Yoruba Art.” Paper presented at the Conference on the Relations Between the Verbal and Visual Arts in Africa, Philadelphia.

DurkheimEmile. 1912. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse: le systéme totémique en Australie. Paris: Alcan. [Translated, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life: A Study in Religious Sociology. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1915.]

DurkheimEmile and MaussMarcel. 1903. “De quelques formes primitives de classification.” L'Année Sociologique6: 1–72. [Translated, Primitive Classification. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963. Excerpted, pp. 32–7 in DouglasMary (ed.) Rules and Meanings. Harmondsworth: Penguin Education, 1973.]

ElkanWalter. 1958. “The East African Trade in Woodcarvings.” Africa28/4: 314–23.

EtienneMona. 1980. “Women and Men, Cloth and Colonization: The Transformation of Production-Distribution Relations Among the Baule (Ivory Coast),” pp. 214–38 in EtienneMona and LeacockEleanor (eds.) Women and Colonization. New York: Praeger.

FaggWilliam. 1963. Nigerian Images. London: Lund Humphries.

FarisJames C.1972. Nuba Personal Art. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

FarisJames C.1978. “The Productive Basis of Aesthetic Traditions: Some African Examples,” pp. 317–39 in GreenhalghMichael and MegawVincent (eds.) Art in Society. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Feeley-HarnikGillian. 1980. “The Sakalava House (Madagascar).” Anthropos75/3, 4: 559–85.

FernandezJames W.1966. “Principles of Opposition and Vitality in Fang Aesthetics.” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism25/1: 53–64.

FernandezJames W.1973. “The Exposition and Imposition of Order: Artistic Expression in Fang Culture,” pp. 194–220 in d'AzevedoWarren L. (ed.) The Traditional Artist in African Societies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

FernandezJames W.1977. “Fang Architectonics.” Working Papers in the Traditional Arts, No. 1. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues.

FirthRaymond. 1951. “The Social Framework of Primitive Art,” pp. 155–82 in FirthRaymond. Elements of Social Organization. London: Watts.

FischerEberhard. 1976. “Probleme der Kreativität bei Künstlern der Dan,” [Problems of Creativity Among the Dan Artists] Quaderni Poro1: 9–21. [167-78, English trans.]

FischerEberhard. 1984. “Self-Portraits, Portraits, and Copies Among the Dan: The Creative Process of Traditional African Mask Carvers.” Iowa Studies in African Art1: 5–28.

FischerJohn L.1961. “Art Styles as Cultural Cognitive Maps.” American Anthropologist63/1: 79–93.

FlamJack D.1976. “Graphic Symbolism in the Dogon Granary: Grains, Time, and a Notion of History.” Journal of African Studies3/1: 35–50.

ForgeAnthony. 1973. “Style and Meaning in Sepik Art,” pp. 169–92 in ForgeAnthony (ed.) Primitive Art and Society. London: Oxford University Press.

ForgeAnthony. 1979. “The Problem of Meaning in Art,” pp. 278–86 in MeadSidney M. (ed.) Exploring the Visual Art of Oceania. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.

FouchierDaniele. 1983. “Le déclin social du forgeron diallonké au Sénégal oriental.” Journal des Africanistes53/1, 2: 184–96.

FraserDouglas. 1972. “The Symbols of Ashanti Kingship,” pp. 137–52 in FraserDouglas and ColeHerbert M. (eds.) African Art and Leadership. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

FraserDouglas. 1974. African Art as Philosophy. New York: Interbook.

FraserDouglas and ColeHerbert M. (eds.) 1972. African Art and Leadership. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

FrobeniusLeo. 1912–1919. Und Afrika sprach. Berlin: Vita.

GearyChristraud M.1981. “The Idiom of War in the Bamum Court Arts.” African Studies Center Working Papers (Boston), No. 51.

GerbrandsA.A.1957. Art as an Element of Culture, Especially in Negro-Africa. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

GirardJean. 1967. Dynamique de la société ouobé: loi des masques et coutume. Dakar: IFAN.

GlazeAnita J.1975. “Women Power and Art in a Senufo Village.” African Arts8/

Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *