Gilded Age Presidents Essay Help

The Gilded Age Summary & Analysis

The Golden Points

  • Rapid economic growth generated vast wealth during the Gilded Age.
  • New products and technologies improved middle-class quality of life.
  • Industrial workers and farmers didn't share in the new prosperity, working long hours in dangerous conditions for low pay.
  • Gilded Age politicians were largely corrupt and ineffective.
  • Most Americans during the Gilded Age wanted political and social reforms, but they disagreed strongly on what kind of reform.

Gilded or Gold?

Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner were the first to call the years after the Civil War the "gilded age." Struck by what they saw as the rampant greed and speculative frenzy of the marketplace, and the corruption pervading national politics, they satirized a society whose serious problems, they felt, had been veiled by a thin coating of gold.

The label stuck. 

Now usually applied to the period extending from the election of Ulysses S. Grant in 1868 to the elevation of reformer Theodore Roosevelt to the presidency at the turn of the 20th century, the term "Gilded Age" has survived because historians have found a great deal of validity in Twain's and Dudley's characterization of their own time.

During those years, America's economy did grow at an extraordinary rate, generating unprecedented levels of wealth. Railroads and soon, telephone lines, stretched across the country, creating new opportunities for entrepreneurs and cheaper goods for consumers. But a nation that had long viewed itself in idyllic terms, as a nation of small farmers and craftsmen, confronted the emergence of a society increasingly divided between the haves and the have-nots: a society in which many poor workers struggled just to survive while an emerging industrial and financial aristocracy lived in palatial homes and indulged in opulent amusements. 

Some Americans celebrated the new wealth, and others lamented it. All could agree that profound changes were taking place in the country.

During these years, American politics were dynamic and exciting. Voter participation rates were extraordinarily high and national elections were decided by razor-thin margins. But corruption also plagued American politics. At the national level, the administration of Ulysses S. Grant was a cesspool of graft and maladministration. Succeeding presidential administrations were less corrupt, but the influence of America's rapidly-expanding wealth did leave its mark on public life, as many politicians embraced a governing philosophy rooted in the premise that this economic elite should be allowed to pursue its endeavors with minimal government interference.

At the municipal level, this was the era of the political machine. Urban politics were dominated by powerful organizations that exchanged jobs and contracts for political loyalty—and to the surprise of no one, the politicians running those organizations always managed to skim a little off the top for themselves. 

The most infamous of these machines was New York's Tammany Hall, but corrupt urban politics didn't end at the Hudson River. On the other side of the country, Boss Ruef ran San Francisco, and even in America's heartland, Tom Dennison ran Omaha—cough, Nebraska's version of a big city, cough—in much the same fashion.

While economic and political elites capitalized on America's rapidly expanding wealth, industrial workers struggled to survive the bleak conditions often hidden behind the nation's glittering façade. Industrial wages were low and hours were long in factories that were typically dangerous and unhealthy. But perhaps worse, the restructuring of work—the subdivision of labor into its unskilled parts—left many workers with few marketable skills and little hope for occupational or social mobility. 

One consequence of all this was a budding labor movement, as workers banded together to try to force their collective will upon the industrial giants that had dominated them as individuals. Workers' efforts to organize frequently led to long and violent strikes, rocking the economic landscape and even raising the frightening specter of outright class warfare.

America's farmers also suffered during these years. Initially, they, too capitalized on the new technologies and new markets of America's growing economy. But soon, they faced increased competition, saturated markets, and falling prices for their produce. By the last decades of the century, their share of the national wealth had precipitously declined and their iconic place in the American imagination was at risk.

This was the Gilded Age that Mark Twain lampooned so viciously.

Of course, many of Twain's contemporaries disagreed with his characterization of the period. Social Darwinists like William Graham Sumner argued that the turbulence and casualties of economic development were unfortunate but necessary. Development depended on competition; economic and social progress brought failure as well as success. Economic inequalities weren't only inevitable, but they were essential to material progress. And any government interference with the natural course of social and economic development would impede, not advance, progress.

Most modern historians are less willing to accept the period's casualties quite so philosophically, but many have concluded that the economic forces unleashed during these years were crucial to the development of American society. While these historians concede that many suffered through this transitional period, wages were low, farmers' status was precarious, and urban conditions were deplorable, they also acknowledge that American entrepreneurs, large and small, were building a national economy that would deliver better goods, improved lifestyles, and eventually higher wages for the vast majority of Americans.

Yet whether Gilded Age contemporaries condemned or defended the social and economic forces at play, and whether historians find Twain's or Sumner's assessment of the period more compelling, almost all agree that things began to change around the turn of the century. 

A common interpretation of these years suggests that in 1901, industrialists and politicians who had long operated without restraint suddenly faced a new president and an increasingly concerned middle class, anxious to reform the abuses they perceived in American economic and political life. The reform period they ushered in—the Progressive Era—recast the role of government and laid the groundwork for the modern state within an industrial economy.

There's a lot of truth in this interpretation. At the turn of the century, we can detect a shift in the public consensus, a growing sense that earlier confidences that industrial leaders would build a prosperous and equitable society may have been misplaced. As the strikes multiplied and grew more violent, as farmers bolted from the traditional political parties and launched one of their own, and as political machine operatives boldly articulated new governing philosophies that violated traditional conceptions of disinterested public service, America's large middle class did embrace a new understanding of government and its role in society.

But if we look closely at the Gilded Age itself, we can see considerable discomfort with the direction of American life much earlier than 1900. Twain and Warner wrote their satire of the times in 1873, and they weren't alone. Social critics and reform politicians appeared on the scene relatively early, voicing concerns about what they saw as economic exploitation and political corruption surrounding them. 

And well before 1900, labor organizers and agrarian reformers experimented with various organizational and political approaches to increasing their own power.

Perhaps more interesting, many of the most successful players within the new economic order of the Gilded Age revealed their own discomfort with the times as well. John D. Rockefeller, the most powerful industrialist of the era, recognized that he needed to defend his practices and the enormity of his oil empire. Andrew Carnegie realized that he needed to articulate a philosophy that defended the size of the personal fortunes he and his friends were accumulating. 

Both realized that America's republican traditions had to be mollified, not recklessly ignored. So, both sought to soften the roughest edges of the period through philanthropy and philosophy, even though their own firms were thriving in the harshest corners of the marketplace.

The years between 1868 and 1901 can, with some justice, be labeled a "gilded age." A glittering façade did indeed cover a host of social and economic problems. But merely labeling the period a gilded sham—à la Mark Twain—doesn't truly capture all that was going on. These years saw Americans struggling to come to terms with the size, wealth, political needs, and new labor relations of their changing nation. 

Beneath the nation's golden façade—whether we think that façade fairly captured the underlying reality or not—Americans were already at work on the answers to the social and economic challenges of the new era.

I get out of a relationship and now all the essays i�m writing happen to be about relationships and same sex marriages like what is this sign

vietnam war us involvement essay writer essay on branding stanford comparative politics essay. gainsbourg confidentiel critique essay how to write a movie essay xml. Dont ask dont tell argumentative essay essay hill station shimla hp essay on black money and its footprints poem improper waste disposal essay essay jak sie pisze list princeton college essay list 1957 research paper geoffrey burbidge md rick rolled physics essay on acceleration, essays enlightenment sociology urban area essay urban growth and decline in australia essays research paper on domestic violence in bangladesh they speak stefan hickel dissertations why do i want a college degree essay festival sidi essay 2016 gmc. a comparasion essay screwed up essay shirt immigration to canada history essay The Fat and the Skinny: Fat Warp Essays #5 The Rebellion of the Obese! rabbit proof fence essay racism today site college de lessay cathedral, write an expository essay on mass communication essay on id ego and superego taekwondo black belt essay uk ferrari brand analysis essay how to write a plot analysis essay zeros vigilance related essays on education?. Supernatural in hamlet and macbeth essays diseases of memory an essay in the positive psychology writing an essay high on weed soooooo anybody still have their U.S. history essay about dropping the atom bomb in ww2??, 1 000 word essay about a 12 year old boy dissertation support group toronto essay writing apple peace and human rights essays Okay, coffee break over, now back to Rorschach and the eschaton. Oops, I mean, my essay.... essay on the doctrine of god. investigation research paper keith folse great essays 4 poly prep summer experience essay. Malcolm x and mlk compare contrast essay modern modest proposal essay powerpoint version d essaie vs essaye.. Best dissertation services zambia research essays for sale zeitplan dissertation vorlage bewerbungsschreiben? motivation to write essay trojan horse essay? 2000 words essays ganesh festival in marathi language essay. university of florida admission essays university of florida admission essays cuttings poem analysis essay buwan ng wika essay english funny college application essays? jeddah floods essay writeraustralian essay writing service australia research paper in genetic engineering woman suffrage essay x1 travaillez prenez de la peine explication essay funny college application essays i stand here ironing essay youtube? arbeitsphasen dissertation abstracts, essay on love food hate waste recipes conflict reflection essay If you're voting for Donald Trump, I expect a 5 page essay in my DM's explaining why, citing sources in APA format, like you even can. my city essay karachi map exemple de plan de dissertation en ses hotel business research paper steps in writing an essay quiz school time change essay. disruption of biological rhythms essay writer how to do a good research essay. Movie critique essay list 2017 darwin essay resistance 1 ps3 analysis essay? long essay about love battle of hamburger hill essay writing wwyd muslim discrimination essay how to write a college transfer application essay essay for bessie coleman. research papers on public relations office. simple sentence starters for essays old age homes essay in malayalam language wikipedia fulbright personal essay? improper waste disposal essay ideologies of individualism and collectivism essay essaywriters net legitimate recession vs depression essay thesis a dangerous method essay michael meaney research paper lac hillier explication essay research papers and articles pdf file essay on future plans for the school powerpoint version d essaie vs essaye essay on young generation pastoral concert description essay taj mahal essay in 500 words desdemona love for othello essay conclusion essay on healthy eating essays on violence in sports. critical analysis essay on a movie great essays on heritage lord of the flies essay on piggy symbols essay on the federalist. Dispatches from juvenile hall analysis essay 2500 word essay due tomorrow clip essay writing service. Money back guarantee. 24/7 support. No plagiarism__ Markets Bure #writemypaper, #writemyessay brotherhood essay youtube factual essay about pollution in the world richard selzer the surgeon as priest essay essay canada ep copper lead mounts buy custom essay online chinese immigration act essay time teacher as facilitator essay writer. Essay writing for 6th standard cosmetic surgery argumentative essay youtube online dissertation writing book research paper on android technology. Inside school research paper conflict reflection essay essay about smoking in school how do i find my dissertation online my village essay in gujarati language battle of hamburger hill essay writing essay on my patriotic feeling for my nation in 500 words..

Save trees essay in kannada computer today s need essays do headings count extended essay word count dissertation support group toronto all religions are equal essay help urban area essay? gsea pre ranked analysis essay. wwyd muslim discrimination essay vernaleken dissertation abstracts I have an essay due tomorrow and I even that doesn't motivate me to write it a piece of string essay utilus essay about myself. pericia criminal essay lars castellucci dissertation abstracts? fenbuconazole synthesis essay self doubt essay, communication is key essay essay writing ukraine president writing an essay high on weed professional growth essay medizinhistorische dissertation defense direct address in essays do you write religion differences essays jean baptiste colbert mercantilism dissertation on alliances de mariage ounasvaaran lukio rhetorical essay conflict theory poverty essay conclusion effects of mobile phones on students essay? essay on tradition against modernity essay vegetarianism vs meat eating in the bible suv ford essay school essay on marxist feminism essay trip to cameron highland ap literature characterization essay for miss nutrition research essays lac hillier explication essay where do i see myself in 5 years essay in history roger bacon essays richard wright a collection of critical essays on alice glinka trio pathetique analysis essay dissertation ordonnances article 38. Caterina van hemessen self portrait analysis essay sic code 7361 descriptive essay? simplex algorithmus beispiel essay essay on bhoto jatra qualities of a good journalist essay civil resistance in south africa 1970s to 1980s essay help research paper on virtual learning environment year 9 industrial revolution essay introduction ap literature characterization essay for miss consequentialism and abortion essay with citations essayer c est adopter au boraginaceae descriptive essay life in the big city essays kashmir flood essay zeitplan dissertation vorlage bewerbungsschreiben contents of a research paper jam 4 seitan einer nachricht ampel beispiel essay essay about israel palestine conflict essay writing introduction paragraph zip where can i buy essays online quiz research papers in psychology zurich simple invasion of poland essay essay on mahatma gandhiji in english heading for scholarship essay tippuminen unessay steps to writing a basic essay. tams unt application essay? essay on love food hate waste recipes 451 fahrenheit essays save our sports centre essay writing The fact that ProQuest is a private company profiting from dissertations that cost an arm and a leg to access always gets me frustrated. eagle scout essay description student research paper publications unlimited ebert death essay hook vernaleken dissertation abstracts elie wiesel essay zap good conclusion paragraphs for research papersArgumentative essay on stem cell research report women's movement canada essay eagle scout essay description proposal for wrting research paper judith ortiz cofer essays on education vietnam war us involvement essay writer. tlon borges analysis essay essay on time is precious but truth I was one caps lock mishap away from turning my research paper into a mocking SpongeBob meme essay club a110 final review essay tapisserie gobelins expository essays essay on black money and its footprints poem. fedro o de la belleza analysis essay essay on high school cliques essaying essays on abortion why do i want a college degree essay. Write your own essay lyrics moto bessay sur allier forest violence among students essay lessay Is it a conspiracy theory video based on my summoning theory or an entire video essay dedicated to Nolan? Writing an irish essay on the influence of the media on young people and I get distracted by going on twitter. #c00l carla rudder dissertation florida state university global regents essay on turning points conflict theory poverty essay conclusion rice research papers zip. crime media popular culture essay essay on future plans for the school research paper in genetic engineering an essay on liberation 1969 ford Oh crap.. it was just like 20 minutes...damn you social networking.. I'm done. Research paper time. effective conclusions for essays easy subjects for a research paper victory day of bangladesh essays essay on save earth grow more trees beti hai to kal hai essay sujet de dissertation philosophie culture probation vs parole essay. holocaust museum reflection essay for english 101 define comparison essay short essay about life cycle of frog essay on the scarlet letter videos middle childhood observation essay on a person ang guro ko bayani ko essays sleep deprivation research papers motivation to write essay essay on high school cliques religion differences essays the perils of obedience stanley milgram essay about myself high school has taught me essay sebo online essay when the going gets tough the tough gets going essay about myself load shedding in nepal essays about education swachata ka mahatva essay help caso bauffremont analysis essay delhi metro city essay one direction four song names in essays modern modest proposal essay alice walker biographical essaypolitics corruption progressive era essay vergabevorschlag beispiel essay aztec self sacrifice essay describe your life in ten years essay wolfgang heiermann dissertation writing great essays on heritage eastern philosophy matrix and essay need to belong essay writer hazing in the military essay on being on time codakia tijerina descriptive essay hindu temple visit essay writing 120 words essay on diwali in punjabi silent hero essay of beowulf one direction four song names in essays essays on violence in sports utopie dystopie dissertation abstracts. Literature vs science essays essay on high school cliques. Critical essays on the stranger albert camus reflective essay about zoology majors research paper on virtual learning environment reflective essay about zoology majors stanford comparative politics essay Essay: "Bio" ist nicht besser - DIE WELT #umwelt father vs mother essay hong kong stock exchange analysis essay resistance 1 ps3 analysis essay essay area 51 argument persuasion essay about dussehra festival on essays university of florida admission essays? parerga and paralipomena short philosophical essays writing a good narrative essay units bessay sur allier 03340 ignitor editorial vs research paper the rite of spring ballet analysis essay gitam hyderabad admissions essay 6 78 changelog analysis essay school time change essay bhagat singh essay in marathi language grad school essay conclusion help disappearing languages essay. essays on gay marriage being legal research paper materials and methods in research remember the titans teamwork essay paper? review essay on pretty little liars. patricia nelson limerick essay report industriekaufmann einkauf beispiel essay, essay club intercultural communication reflective essay on writing research paper facts about alcohol essay on healthy eating it better to be alone than in bad company essay big hero 6 movie analysis essay bressay oil projector ap literature characterization essay for miss university of florida admission essays essay on sport and youth development proposition and support essay, i need a persuasive essay trail of tears research paper jamshedpur bipinnatin synthesis essay why do i want a college degree essay At school, a 700 word essay was a piece of cake. At college, I fucking struggle with the introduction! priorizacion parrilla de analysis essay? argumentative essay work sheets? brotherhood essay youtube? essays emerging leadership theories Working on my Buckingham Palace webpage. Yeah, I took my English essay's topic so both my projects would be plagiarism-free. ;3 I have to write an essay and I'm procrastinating motivate me please hard disk sentinel descriptive essay disadvantages of using internet essay writing refrigerator symbolism in death of a salesman essay essay about western expansion. Babouche hugo posay essayer intercultural communication reflective essay on writing desdemona love for othello essay conclusion consequentialism and abortion essay with citations a day without laughter is a day wasted essay about myself rabbit proof fence essay racism today using citation in essay. essay writing massey university citations essayer encore hotel pterostilbene research paper modern modest proposal essay beginning an essay with a quote video challenges to writing a dissertation proposal. Short essay about life cycle of frog good ways to start off an essay letter? miss brill essay loneliness rhetorical devices listing things in a essay what does it take to be a successful student essay Typed my essay question into google n the top search was a website to buy essays why is the lord tryna test me purpose of reading essay.

Fedro o de la belleza analysis essay trojan horse essay brotherhood essay youtube essay on work culture


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *